Evaluation of Potential Historic Structures in the City of Scotts Valley
Prepared by Glory Anne Laffey, historian

Assisted by Marion Pokriots, Charlene Detlefs, Leslie Hurst, and Edith Smith

February 1990

  1. The Second Frapwell House
    5010 Scotts Valley Drive
  2. The First Scotts Valley Firehouse
    4425 Scotts Valley Drive
  3. Camp Evers
    3109 Scotts Valley Drive
  4. The Evans House
    27 Mount Hermon Roa
  5. Nathaniel Hicks House
    917 Disc Drive
  6. The Scotts Valley Motor Court
    4203 Scotts Valley Drive
  7. The Third Scotts Valley School
    108 Bean Creek Road
  8. The Raymond Stewart House
    552 Bean Creek Road
  9. The Beverly Gardens
    4548-4550 Scotts Valley Drive
  10. The Ryder Houses
    2 and 6 Bean Creek Road
  11. The Tannery Building at Pinnacle Pass
    75 Mount Hermon Road
  12. Conclusions and Recommendations


INTRODUCTION

This evaluation of twelve potentially significant historical resources in the City of Scotts Valley was carried out by the staff of Archaeological Resource Management during the months of October 1989 through January 1990. The purpose of the study is to provide the City with specific information to identify which buildings and/or properties may be historically significant.

In March 1987, the City adopted a Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance. The purpose of the ordinance is to protect, enhance, perpetuate uses, improvements, buildings, and other structures of historic, architectural, artistic, cultural, engineering, aesthetic, political, social, and other significance, located within the limits of the City. The ordinance also established the Cultural Resource Preservation Commission whose function is to establish criteria, review, and comment on historical significance on all activity within the City. One of the duties of the Commission is to maintain a local register of historic properties.

A list of potentially historic properties was compiled by the Commission from recommendations submitted by the Scotts Valley Historical Society. This list was made up of potentially historic properties that had been identified in a number of cultural resource management studies conducted in Scotts Valley, as well as from other sources. Several historic properties had been previously evaluated and the list properties was reduced to the twelve resources which were specifically researched and evaluated in this study.

Methodology

The research methodology for this study involved three basic tasks: 1) a non-intrusive field examination ; 2) archival research; and 3) evaluation of the resource based on the field and archival find-ings. The field examination of the building exteriors was conducted by Ms. Glory Anne Laffey with the assistance Ms. Leslie Hurst. During this phase of the study, observations were recorded on the architectural style, approximate age, the physical setting of the resource, and its physical and architectural integrity. Photographs were taken of the resource with special attention to characteristic and/or unique details and associated features such as landscaping, out-buildings, etc. that contributed to, or detracted from, the resource's final evaluation statement. These observations were recorded on historic resource survey forms.

The archival research was performed by Ms. Laffey, Ms. Marion Pokriots, Ms. Edith Smith, and Ms. Hurst. Ms. Pokriots also assisted in writing the history of several of the resources. The research focused on the discovery of the construction date, builder, owners and occupants of each structure, and the function of the structure or land use as it related to the social, economic, and historical context of the community. The local archives at which research was conducted included City and County records, the Scotts Valley Branch Library, the Branciforte Branch library and Special Collections at the McHenry Library, University of Santa Cruz. Records that provided relevant data included: agricultural and population censuses, land records, tax records, historical maps, biographical data, etc. In addition, archival data collected during previous studies by ARM researchers on Scotts Valley history contributed substantially to the study. The archival background was supplemented by interviews with informants knowledgeable about the resources. These informants included former or current residents (or their descendents), persons knowledgeable about the general development in the area or about the history of specific structures/resources, and individuals with private document/photograph collections that were relevant to the study. The informants were invaluable for filling gaps in the archival record in order to gain a fuller understanding of the resources.

This report includes an overview of the historical development of Scotts Valley that will provide the social and economic context for the resources. Individual chapters will provide the historical background for each resource, a physical description of the building and its setting, an evaluation based on a synthesis of the results of the research findings, and current photographs as well as historic photographs when available. The conclusion summarizes the findings and provides a discussion of the merits of alternative preservation plans. A bibliography of sources of information and an appendix of evaluation forms are also provided.

Evaluation Criteria

Each of the potential resources was evaluated according to the criteria listed in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the according to the standards for the National Register of Historic Places. The Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria are:

1. Identification or association with person(s), eras or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way. 2. Identification as, or association with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige; a) of an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of construction, or b) of a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked. 3. Exemplification or reflection of specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places are:

1. The property must be at least fifty years old, and 2. The property must meet one or more of following criteria: a) be associated with events significant to broad patterns of history; b) be associated with significant personalities in our past; c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area. 3. The property must possess architectural integrity, and 4. The property must be evaluated within the context of the area's local history.

Other criteria considered in the evaluation were: 1. Present condition of the resource 2. Threats to preservation of the resource 3. Surrounding land uses and structures 4. Whether the structure was on its original site

As a further aid in determining relative historical significance of the various resources, a numerical evaluation system, used by the City of San Jose, was applied to all Scotts Valley historical resources for which research has been done. Although the system was designed for San Jose, the evaluation criteria is similar to that used in Scotts Valley, and it allows the objective comparison of dissimilar resources with varying degrees of physical condition and impacted integrity. The San Jose system allows for additional value to be assigned to a resource with interior merit. As the interiors of the structures evaluated in this study were not considered, certain resources may have more historical or architectural value based on the condition of their interior features than is reflected in this study.

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

The City of Scotts Valley was originally part of the 4400+ acre Rancho San Agustin. The first white man to reside in the Scotts Valley area was a Russian sailor, Jose Antonio Bolcoff. Bolcoff was the earliest Russian settler in California, arriving in Califor-nia at the age of 20, leaving his ship in Monterey in 1815. In 1822 Bolcoff married Candida Castro, the daughter of Joaquin Castro of Branciforte. Bolcoff became a Mexican citizen in 1833 and was granted the Rancho San Agustin; and to meet the requirements of the government, he built a house on the grant. By 1836, he and his family, in-cluding Candida's sisters, were residing on the rancho (Bancroft 1886; Pokriots 1989).

In 1834, a group of American mountain men, led by Isaac Graham, arrived in California, many of them settling in the Santa Cruz mountains. Among this group was Joseph Ladd Majors, a young trapper from Tennessee, who joined Graham in the redwoods in the Zayante area where he became a partner in a distillery. Majors was attracted to Maria de los Angeles Castro, Bolcoff's sister-in-law, living at the nearby rancho. After Majors obtained his Mexican citizenship, the young couple were married in 1839. They made their first home at the San Agustin rancho. An early deed locates Majors' house one mile south of the ruins, which would place it in the vicinity of Mt. Hermon Road (Detlefs 1989). During the political unrest in 1840, when foreigners were looked upon with suspicion, Majors converted his adobe house (probably the former Bolcoff adobe) into a fortress for protection from the hostile Californians (Bancroft 1886; Pokriots 1989).

In the meantime Jose Bolcoff was serving as the alcalde (mayor) of Villa Branciforte, a position he held from 1839 to 1842 and from 1845 to 1846. In 1839, Bolcoff was also the administrator of the exMission in Santa Cruz. After being granted the Rufugio rancho, Bolcoff apparently abandoned the San Agustin which was granted in 1841 to Joseph Majors along with the Zayante Rancho. Majors sold a portion of the Zayante Rancho to Isaac Graham; and in 1842, Graham was operating a water-powered sawmill on the west bank of Zayante Creek opposite Bean Creek. Majors and others had operated a gristmill and a tannery on Zayante Rancho prior to Graham's purchase (Farley 1975).

An American visitor to the "American colony" that was established at Graham's and Major's ranches in 1841 reported that he was treated to "good beef, plenty of beans and red pepper, good coffee and nice milk" (Pokriots 1989: 17). Majors was engaged in stock raising, operating a distillery, growing wheat. He also built several grist-mills in the area, one believed to be located at the former Sky Park Airport (Verado and Verado 1987). In 1843 Majors served as juez de campo (judge) in Branciforte and while he settled disputes in the area, Indians operated his mule driven gristmill (Pokriots 1989).

This same year Paul Sweet established a tannery on Major's ranch, believed to be near Holmes Lumber Yard north of Mt. Hermon Road (Detlefs 1989). Leather was in demand for saddles, leggings, boots, etc. Since deer, bear, and steer hides were readily available, the business flourished. Bark from local oak trees was ground by a large wooden wheel which reduced about a half cord of bark per day. Skins were put into eight large vats made of split logs. In 1846 Paul Sweet joined the "Bear Flag" battalion and marched south with Fremont's men (Sentinel Jan. 22, 1890; Scotts Valley Branch Library).

Majors continued to take an active part in local government, both before and after the occupation of California by the United States. He served as juez de paz in 1846 and 1847 and was a member of council of Santa Cruz in 1848. He served as alcalde (mayor) of Santa Cruz and as subprefect in 1849-50. He was also chosen as a delegate to the constitutional convention in 1849 and as treasurer for the new County of Santa Cruz. His official duties as well as the operation of a new three-story gristmill in Santa Cruz left little time for his rancho.

In 1850 Hiram Daniel Scott offered to buy Rancho San Agustin for $20,000, making his first payments in 1852. The son of a sea captain, Scott was a native of Maine who had jumped ship at Monterey in 1846 and hidden with a Spanish family before heading to the gold fields and becoming a successful businessman in Stockton. About 1853, Hiram constructed the small frame house presently located near the City Hall. Between 1853 and 1856, Hiram brought his large family, consisting of his father, step mother, and nine brothers and sisters, from Maine to the San Agustin rancho. Hiram's brother, Joseph, in 1905 describe Scotts Valley in 1853 as a place where horses and cattle roamed wild and "wild clover grew tall enough to tie over the back of a horse" (Surf December 6, 1905). The Scotts has 250 horses and cultivated grain. The first year they produced 10,000 bushels of barley and wheat which was hauled by ox teams to Santa Cruz and shipped by schooner to San Francisco (Ibid.). In 1856 Hiram decided to again visit the gold fields, and quit-claimed the ranch to his father, Daniel, and most of the ranch was divided up between Hiram's father and brothers. Daniel Scott occupied Hiram's house until his death in 1867. Hiram returned to the area in 1858 and married in 1861. From 1869 to 1874 he was operating livery stables in Santa Cruz. In 1874 Hiram was lured by mining opportunities to Arizona where he prospected and farmed until his death in 1886 (Santa Cruz Surf April 5, 1886; Detlefs and Bowman 1976).

Prior to 1858, travel between Santa Cruz and the Santa Clara Valley was the Spanish trail established by the Mission fathers probably following the old Indian trail across the mountains or after 1854 by stagecoach via San Juan Bautista and Watsonville. During the early American period commerce had been dependent on shipping with a few trails connecting sawmills, tanneries, gristmills, and scattered ranches with Santa Cruz's shipping point. Intensification of agriculture and lumbering resulted in pressure to surmount the physical barrier of the mountains between Santa Cruz and the Santa Clara Valley. Three turnpike companies completed roads in 1858. The Santa Cruz Gap Turn-pike Joint Stock Company built a road from Los Gatos to the summit where it was joined by roads built by the Santa Clara Turnpike Company and the Santa Cruz Turnpike Company. The Santa Clara Turn-pike Company's route followed the Old San Jose Road to Soquel. The Santa Cruz Turn-pike Company was organized by Charles McKiernan (Mountain Charley), Hiram D. Scott, and F. A. Hihn. McKiernan and Scott took the construction contract of $6,000, completing the road from Santa Cruz via Graham Hill Road and through Scotts Valley to the summit in eight months. The route followed Graham Hill Road, Scotts Valley Drive, Glenwood Road, and Mountain Charlie Road where it met the Santa Clara project at the summit (Koch 1973). It was announced in 1858 that stages would run tri-weekly, later increasing to twice daily through Scott's Valley, stopping to change horses at Scott's house (on Scotts Valley Drive). From this point, the four horses team was changed to a six horse team for the long pull up the grade up the toll road to Mountain Charley's cabin (Farley 1975; Wulf n.d.).

The pattern of constant land subdivision and increasingly intensified use occurring in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay areas was typical of Scotts Valley. By the late 1860s dairy farms appeared in the valley, becoming one of the major industries in the area. The largest dairy in the valley was established in 1869 by David M. Locke on 1131 acres on both sides of Mt. Hermon Road. Known for its production of fine butter, the dairy was also a tourist attraction by 1896. Locke's homestead was characterized as having "magnificent oaks and pines and well-cultivated flower gardens" (Francis 1896:121). Other dairies were established by the Erringtons, Hicks, Thomsons, and Frapwells, to name of few. By 1887 the valley was mostly devoted to dairy products, cheese and butter being the staples. However, ranchers in Scotts Valley believed in agricultural diversification, raising vegetables, fruit, forage crops, poultry and eggs, animals for slaughter, and cutting lumber for shingles and fire wood. A small vineyard was attached to most of the farms, producing grapes and wine (Raymond 1887).

By the 1870s, the timber on the ridges and in the canyons surrounding the valley began to be exploited, bringing a transient population of lumbermen to the area. The tannery was revived in the late 1860s and 70s by John Wagner and partners. Scotts Valley's first school house was built in 1872 by land donated by David M. Locke. By 1872 the only Scott remaining in the valley was George Edwin, whose house and dairy were located on Glenwood Drive, later known as the Santos ranch (Cartier and Detlefs 1981). Throughout the nineteenth century and early twentieth century Scotts Valley participated in the steady agricultural development of the county, remaining predominantly a farming and dairy region until the 1930s. During the 1930s and 1940, the large dairy ranches of the Lockes and Frapwells began to be subdivided into smaller parcels leading to more intense commercial and residential development.

From its early years as a stop on the stage route across the mountains, the community of Scotts Valley provided services to travelers. The State Highway was built in the 1920s following the route of the old stage road. Scotts Valley's location on the State Highway and the increased automobile traffic led to local commercial development and the establishment of tourism as a local industry. In the 1920s, Edward N. Evers established Camp Evers at the junction of the State Highway and Mt. Hermon Road. Camp Evers consisted of a small store, gas pumps, dance hall, and tents, becoming a resort and rest stop on the route between Los Gatos and Santa Cruz. For many years the area was better known as Camp Evers than as Scotts Valley. The Beverly Gardens was established in the early 1930s and featured a collection of exotic birds and animals, a restaurant, and cabins. The Tree Circus was opened in 1947 by Axel Erlandson, featuring trees grafted and trained to grow in strange and unusual shapes. The brightly painted dinosaurs of Lost World, visible from the rerouted State Highway, were added to the Tree Circus in 1964. The wax museum and Santa's Village were also added as popular tourist attractions during the 1950s. The new freeway completed about 1960 threatened the continued success of the tourist-related commercial activities in the small community. At the time the five-mile stretch of highway included Santa's Village, the wax museum, the Tree Circus, besides the innumerable curio shops selling everything from redwood burls to comic signs. The shops were flanked by fruit juice stands and motels (Jones 1954; Corr 1975).

The peaceful redwood forests and mild climate made Scotts Valley a popular spot from summer campers from an early period. In the 1880s D. M. Locke rented his old house on Bean Creek to campers from the nearby cities (Surf August 19, 1887). Several other resorts and camps were located on Bean Creek that attracted summer visitors during this period. In 1887 the Methodists were holding camp meetings in Scotts Valley and by the turn of the century religious retreats and conference grounds in and around Scotts Valley were being permanently established. Scotts Valley became a commercial service center for nearby Mount Hermon conference grounds, established in 1906, and Mission Springs conference grounds, opened in 1927 by the Covenant Evangelical Mission Association of California. In the 1940s the Free Methodist Church established a campground on Bean Creek Road adjacent to Camp Evers and in 1950 the Assemblies of God relocated Bethany Bible College from San Francisco to 165 acres Scotts Valley (Koch 1973).

Early industrial development was centered around the area's natural resources, namely sand and gravel quarries, sawmills and lumberyards, and peat. A large portion of Locke's dairy was developed into a private airport after World War II becoming, in 1962, the municipal airport for the City of Santa Cruz until its closure in 1983. The first electronic company in Scotts Valley was the Stewart Engineering Company established by Raymond Stewart in the 1950s. This company was taken over by Watkins-Johnson in 1963. The expanding electronics industry is now one of the City's major employers.

In the early 1960s it appeared that the City of Santa Cruz was going to annex Scotts Valley piecemeal. After a long battle with the County of Santa Cruz over the location of a cemetery in the middle of town and designs on Sky Park airport, the residents of Scotts Valley incorporated into a city in 1966. Real estate was a thriving industry as early as the mid-1950s. Scotts Valley was even then becoming a bedroom community with people commuting to Lockheed in Sunnyvale and IBM in south San Jose (1954). The city has continued to grow, and now has a population of over 8,000 residents (Chamber of Commerce 1989).

THE SECOND FRAPWELL HOUSE
5010 Scotts Valley Drive

Historical Background


In June 1911, brothers George, John and Edward Frapwell purchased 425 acres from Ellen Thomson, the widow of William Thomson, and Thomas N.Thomson, her son, (Official Records 233:155). The Frapwell's also bought the Live Oak Dairy from Grace P. Hicks in 1911 (Official Records 233:167). Edward Frapwell moved to Scotts Valley to manage the dairy ranch, while George lived in Santa Cruz, and John lived at the Frapwell family's Corralitos ranch (Frapwell 1967).

The Thomson's Edgewood Farm and the Hick's Live Oak Dairy were combined under the Frapwell's management. The ranch produced fruit, corn, pork, potatoes, hay, alfalfa, beans, and from the 250 acres of forest, wood and lumber. The most important operation was the dairy with its herd of 100 holstein cows. Starting in 1912, Edward hauled the milk to Santa Cruz, where George bottled the milk in his basement, and delivered it door to door. After pasteurization was required the raw milk was sold to the Sunshine Creamery. Later the cream was separated from the milk and shipped to a creamery in San Francisco, becoming the most profitable enterprise of the dairy. Edward loved horses, buying wild range ponies which he broke to harness (Frapwell 1967).

Edward and his family first took up residence in the beautiful three-story Victorian that had been built by William Thomson in 1892 on the west side of Scotts Valley Road (at the present site of the Travel Trails business) (Frapwell 1967). About 1920, the brothers decided to sell the property that included the Thomson Victorian. Marion Hollins, a prominent sportsman of the period, took an option of the Frapwell parcel; however, she subsequently bought the Santa's Village property. The Frapwell property was finally purchased by a Mr. Wellman (Frapwell 1986-89). Edward then took title to five acres directly across the road from the "big house" and the family temporarily took up residence in the nearby Thomson-Silva house located nearby at 4990 Scotts Valley Drive while their new house was being built.

The well-known architect, Edward Van Cleek was engaged to draw plans for a new modern home. Van Cleek had earlier designed the large dairy barn located on Granite Creek Road that housed the Live Oak Dairy herd. Van Cleek supplied Edward and his wife, Eva, with a copy of Catalog No. 32 of Aladdin Company's Aladdin Homes, which ranged in price from $670 to $7,000 (Aladdin 1919). The Frapwell's showed the architect what they liked in the catalog, and Van Cleek then drew up the plans.

With a team of horses, Edward did extensive grading before the construction on the house began. The two story Craftsman bungalow was built in a old creek bed. Each side of the creek was filled in and the creek was channelized with a bypass drain to conform to the property line. Edward's son, Elvis, claims there were never any drainage problems.

The new seven room residence was built in 1922-23. The first floor include a kitchen, living room, sewing room, bedroom and a water closet. The second story contained three bedrooms and a bathroom. Janus Johansen, a Danish house painter, finished the interior paneling to resemble eucalyptus wood. The living room featured a dish cupboard at one end. A circulating wood heater warmed the house. The basement was converted into a garage for the family car. Later the garage housed a Reo seven-seater touring car, plus the family Dodge.

An apple orchard surrounded the house and a vegetable garden was planted between the house and the creek. A large walnut tree shaded the backyard. Peach trees lined the road and a circular drive in front of the house made entering and leaving Scotts Valley Road convenient and safe (State Highway Map 1:5; Frapwell 1989; Stocking 1989).

At the time the Frapwell home was constructed, E. L. Van Cleek was in his 70s and living in Ben Lomond. The Frapwell home was perhaps one of his last commissions, as he died on October 26, 1925 (Sentinel October 22, 1925). Van Cleek arrived in Santa Cruz about 1895, became a highly esteemed citizen, and was one of the city's most sought after architects. He designed the D. D. Wilder ranchhouse at the historic Wilder Ranch north of Santa Cruz. Both the Wilder Dairy and the Frapwell's Live Oak Dairy were well-known establishments in the county. Van Cleek also designed the Elks and Trust buildings on Pacific Garden Mall (Chase 1979). The Trust Building may be soon demolished, due to damage suffered in the 7.1 earthquake of October 17, 1989. The Elks Building next door, has been declared unsafe and the Wilder ranch house received extensive damage (Santa Cruz Central Library 1989).

The Frapwell family was prominent in Corralitos, Santa Cruz, and Scotts Valley. The elder Frapwells immigrated from England to the United States with their five sons, Henry, William, George, John, and Edward (Frapwell 1967). Edward Frapwell was a leader in the Scotts Valley community, serving as school trustee for two years and as an organizer of the county-wide fair that was held at the Scotts Valley School for several years. He was also a member of the Santa Cruz County Farm Bureau. County Farm Advisor, Henry Washburn, was often known to ask him for advice (Frapwell 1989; Stocking 1989). Eva Frapwell was known for her hospitality and young people's parties. She belonged to the Farm Bureau Home Department and the WCTU. She was also active in the First Methodist Church in Santa Cruz (Strong 1986; Stocking 1989).

The property at 5010 Scotts Valley Drive was sold in 1945, and Edward and Eva moved into Santa Cruz. The lot was split and there have been various owners during the past forty years including Herman and Helen Nanna in 1947. The house has been used as a private school and an apartment house, and is now part of Scotts Valley Sprinkler and Pipe Supply (Detlefs 1978; Stocking 1989).

Description

The residence at 5010 Scotts Valley is a wood frame structure that was constructed in 1923 for the Edward Frapwell family. The one-and-a-half story Craftsman style residence features a cross-gabled wing on the northern elevation and a large dormer on the southern elevation. The roof is covered with asphalt shingles with exposed rafter ends and typical Craftsman eave braces. Fenestration includes a bank of three double-hung sash windows in the gable that are flanked by two small fixed pane windows. There are square bay windows located on the northern and eastern elevations. Many of the original windows have been replaced by aluminum framed windows. The house is sheathed with he original tri-lap bungalow siding. The structure has a large concrete basement which serves as an underground garage.

The house has undergone considerable alteration. The original dormer on the southern elevation has been converted to an entrance for an upstairs apartment. The entrance porch is over an addition on the lower story of the house and the original bay window in this location was removed. The front porch has been enclosed on the northern side and the entrance has been relocated. There is second set of stairs to the upper story attached to the back of the house.

The house presently sits within a sprinkler and landscaping supply commercial operation. A six foot fence shield the house from view of three sides and piles of landscaping supplies are located near the house on the exposed side. The site is almost entirely covered with an asphalt driveway. A few large fir trees are extant.

THE FIRST SCOTTS VALLEY FIREHOUSE
4425 Scotts Valley Drive

Historical Background


Fires were always a serious problem faced by the residents of Scotts Valley. Mrs. Lola Graham recalled the raging forest fire on July 3, 1929, that swept through the area between Mount Hermon Conference Center and Mission Springs Conference Center taking several homes with it. It was this fire that burned the beautiful Locke home and threatened the residence of the Grahams nearby on Mount Hermon Road. The fire was being fought by the Sheriff and a crew of volunteers, who rushed to the Graham house as the fire started in their direction. While Mrs. Graham sat in her car with the children and prayed for the fire fighters, the wind suddenly shifted and blew south towards Mount Baldy carrying the fire across Pasatiempo Pines and on to Graham Hill Road where it was contained. The few sparks the ignited on the Graham's moss covered redwood shake roof were quickly doused by the vigilant volunteer fire fighters (Pokriots 1990).

In the late 1940s, the first volunteer fire chief was B. J. Erba, the co-owner of Camp Evers store. Ed Ponza recalled that "when there was a fire, he'd stay at the store and B. J. would go to the fire. Anybody else who was around went with him to help" (Scotts Valley Banner n.d.). The volunteer fire department had a 1939 WPA dump truck that had been loaned by the Scotts Valley School. The truck was kept at Erba's store or nearby in a garage on the school grounds. The volunteers stripped it down and added a 400 gallon water tank. The fire engine was referred to as "Old Faithful" serving the fire department until 1955 when it was replaced by a new GMC truck with a 670 gallon tank (Jakeway 1974).

In 1953 the fire truck was moved to a garage on Highway 17 near Lloyd Ragon's Scotts Valley Garage and Service Station. Lloyd Ragon served as the volunteer Fire Chief for eight years. It was Mrs. Ragon's role to received the calls and relay them to her husband. During this period volunteer fighters were scarce. Chief Ragon often would arrive to extinguish a fire when no volunteers or just one or two would arrive to help.

In 1956 the Scotts Valley Fire Protection District was formed and first fire house was constructed on Scotts Valley Drive. At this time the firehouse consisted of one big truck room with car ports on each side which housed the two pumpers and one tanker. The alarm system still depended on the wives of volunteers telephoning other volunteers in a "chain letter" type of alarm system. Volunteers were issued pagers in the 1970s.

In 1962 a new fire house was constructed on Erba Lane, named for the department's first fire chief. Shortly thereafter, in 1963, the first full-time paid fire fighter was hired, and by 1974 the District boasted two fire stations, 9 full-time fire fighters, 27 volunteers, and eight emergency vehicles (Jakeway 1974).

The small building that served as Scotts Valley's first firehouse is now the office and sales office for Scotts Valley Rockery, a function it has served for more that 20 years.

Description

The first firehouse is a small front-gabled garage structure with shed roofed wings. The central gabled section has an asphalt shingle roof and the eaves have an open rake. The central section is sheathed with horizontal, V-channel siding. The wings have vertical siding. The entrance appears to have been originally large, double garage doors; however, half of the original entrance is an aluminum framed windows and small entrance.

The structure has a concrete block foundation and a slab floor throughout. The north wing serves as an office and sitting room with a free standing fire place. There are open rafter ceilings and the inside walls have been stuccoed. The south wing is an open car port.

A small, gabled, laundry room extension is located at the rear of the structure. It has horizontal siding with corner boards. There is also a flat roofed shed addition on the rear that appears to serve as equipment storage. This addition has sliding doors and vertical siding.

The structure is now serving as the office and sales room associated with the Scotts Valley Rockery. The parcel contains a two aisles of bins of landscaping materials, large equipment displays, and landscaping along Scotts Valley Drive. The neighborhood is composed of contemporary modern buildings used for mixed residential and commercial purposes.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old, 2) meet one or more of four criteria, 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history. Criteria for eligibility include: a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history; b) association with significant personalities in our past; c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

The Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria are: 1) Identification or association with person(s), eras or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way. 2) Identification as, or association with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige; a) of an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of construction, or b) of a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked. 3) Exemplification or reflection of specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of the first firehouse dates to 1956 making the structure 34 years old, which is not of sufficient age to qualify the structure for the National Register of Historic Places.

The history of fire protection in Scotts Valley is an important element in the historical development of the community's municipal services. Traditionally volunteer fire departments provide an important social function, as well a protective one, by contributing to a sense of community cohesiveness, especially during a time of crisis. Volunteer fire departments also depend entirely on the availability and expertise of local members of the community willing to take personal risks to benefit a neighbor's welfare. Volunteers were drawn from the local community and equipment and storage facilities were loaned or donated for local use. The formal organization of the Scotts Valley Fire Protection District and the acquisition of the first permanent firehouse was an important event in the development of the fire department. Even though the firehouse was not occupied twenty-four hours a day, it did provide a central location for meetings, training, equipment servicing and storage; thus focusing volunteer efforts. Therefore, the structure which served this important function in the community, represents an important pattern in the development of the community of Scotts Valley.

The office of Fire Chief was held by several important individuals in the recent history of Scotts Valley. The first fire chief was B. J. Erba who settled in Scotts Valley in 1947. Erba served as fire chief for a number of years and then as the Director on the Board of Trustees of the Scotts Valley Fire Protection District until his death in 1975. Other fire chiefs include Lloyd Ragon and Carl Taylor. Association with these community members is not strong enough to offer significance under this criterion.

The architectural style of this structure is a minimal utilitarian and functional style with no distinctive architectural elements.

The final consideration in the evaluation process is the assessment of the architectural and historical integrity of the structure in terms of alteration and deterioration. The structure has served two functions in its period of service: 1) the firehouse, and 2) a commercial office and sales room. In the process of conversion to the second period of use, changes have been made resulting in the alterations to the entrance and the interior that have compromised the historical integrity of the structure to some degree. It is possible, however, that these alterations may be reversible and the original appearance of the first firehouse could be restored.

Evaluation Summary and Conclusion

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, it appears that is structure is not eligible for the National Register at the present time, primary due to the fact that it is not yet 50 years of age. However, as the first firehouse in Scotts Valley the structure has local significance as it relates to broad patterns of community development or criterion A of the National Register and criterion 3 of the Ordinance. Given time and the lack of further structural alterations, the historical significance of the building is likely to increase.

CAMP EVERS
3109 Scotts Valley Drive

Historical Background


In the early 1920s, Scotts Valley was still a very rural community. Scotts Valley Drive was the route of the state highway, then a narrow winding road. Along the highway were pastures for the many dairy herds, cultivated plots, and small orchards. In 1914, the road to Felton followed Bean Creek Road for a ways before turning to cut behind Camp Evers and joining what is now Mt. Hermon Road in the vicinity of Kings Village. The highway continued to the present intersection of Mt. Hermon Road turning east and continuing to Santa Cruz. The property that became Camp Evers was a pasture belonging to Alexander and Finette Locke with the farm of A. P. Hendricks being located near the current intersection of Whispering Pines and Mt. Hermon Road (State of California 1914).

The Locke family settled in Scotts Valley in 1870, purchasing a large tract of land from Samuel Dickens in 1869 that extended from Scotts Valley Road to Lockhart Gulch. David M. Locke established a large successful dairy on his property which was taken over after his death in 1908 by his children, Alexander and Finette.

In 1926, Finette Locke Armstrong Shafter sold 28 acres to Edward N. Evers. This parcel was bounded by the state highway, the Old Felton Road (now Bean Creek Road), and the southern boundary was approximately the route of Mt. Hermon Road today. A two-acre parcel at the corner of Scotts Valley Drive and Bean Creek Road had been previously sold to the Ryders and was not included in the sale to Evers (Official Record 68:52). In 1927, Evers deeded a road right-of-way to the County of Santa Cruz for a public highway. A map of this transaction shows that structures at the intersection of the State Highway and Mt. Hermon Road consisted of a 40-by-60 foot store building facing Scotts Valley Road, a service station on the corner of the intersection, and a dance hall (Official Record 95:341-343).

Camp Evers became a favorite stopping place for weary travelers coming from or going to Santa Clara. Travelers would stop and eat lunch under the large oaks that can still be seen in front of the present Scotts Valley Intermediate School. In 1921 Edward Evers, with his wife and son, Ed Jr., took over a store and garage that had been built a few months earlier (Koch 1973). Evers, on November 16, 1921, took over an Agreement, which Finette Locke had made earlier that same year with Webster and Martin (Agreements 15:184). The sale of the property was recorded in 1926 (Official Record 68:52). By 1939, the only change in the buildings on the parcel was the addition of a residence (State of California 1939). In 1944 Evers sold the land and retired to Santa Cruz (Koch 1973).

The next owners were Helen Nanna and Bert Polan who operated the little grocery store after World War II. Camp Evers was the shopping center for the community. At this time Camp Evers included the bus depot for the Greyhound and Peerless Lines, a real estate office, and some cabins. Ed Ponza and B. J. Erba took over the operation and adjacent beer bar in 1947, and Helen Nanna opened a hardware store a small distance north on Scotts Valley Road. These were the only two stores in town. Clair DuBois, who worked at the Camp Evers store from 1945 to 1948, recalls that everything was under one roof. Ed Ponza recalls that the Camp Evers store was a central meeting spot. It opened at 6:00 a.m. and "all the guys used to come in for coffee. The bread man would make the coffee." Ponza arrived a little after 6:00 and "the guys would stay until about 7:30. We solved a lot of Scotts Valley problems there" (Scotts Valley Banner n.d.).

The face of Scotts Valley was beginning to change during the post-war years. On Mt. Hermon Road were the beginnings of the flying field rented by the Grahams to a pair of former military men for the purpose of training pilots under the GI Bill of Rights (Cartier and Laffey 1989). Motels, eating places and service stations dotted the stretch of Highway 17 that is now Scotts Valley Drive. The traffic was heavy and often backed-up for miles as it went to Santa Cruz and the San Lorenzo Valley.

The new Highway 17 bypassed Camp Evers greatly reducing the traffic passing the store. This adversely affected business for for a short time but business soon began to steadily increase. Ponza and Erba purchased additional property in 1961 and built a new market which was completed in 1963. The beer bar stayed open until the new store was built. Ponza bought out Erba's share in the store in 1964, and Erba left to open a market with his sons in Boulder Creek, while Ponza continued to operate the Camp Evers store. Ponza's brother-in-law, Gene Hopkins, acquired more of the surrounding property and developed Camp Evers Center (Banner June 20, 1989). As the little market grew, so did the town. Slowly, residential area developed to be followed by commercial centers.

After the new market was opened, the old store became Coral Auto Parts, and later Auntie Mame's restaurant. The old store, located at the southern corner of the present building complex, has been remodeled and stuccoed. In 1979, Ed Ponza retired and transferred ownership of the market to his daughter Diane making her a 49 percent owner. At this time Diane took over as the store's working manager. In 1982, Jon E. Hopkins transferred ownership of the Camp Evers shopping center to Diane Ponza Bei and her husband (Official Records 3513:455).

Description

The complex of buildings that comprise Camp Evers are located in the northwest of the intersection of Scotts Valley Drive and Mt. Hermon Road. The commercial/office center consists of complex of one-story attached and detached stucco buildings. The section of the complex that contains the original Camp Evers store has been remodeled to such an extent that the original structure is not visibility discernible. The building is a row of attached commercial units with a shingled mansard roof which overhangs the plate glass store fronts. The original Camp Evers store has been remodeled to house a restaurant.

Although the corner has been greatly developed, there are several large oak trees extant in the rear parking lot that probably provided shade for those early travelers who stopped at Camp Evers to eat a picnic lunch and relax on a warm afternoon.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old 2) meet one or more of four criteria 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history Criteria for eligibility include a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history b) association with significant personalities in our past c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

There are three criteria outlined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria. To meet the ordinance criteria, a property must 1) be identified or associated with person(s), eras, or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way 2) be identified as, or associated with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige of a) an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of, or b) a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked; and/or 3) exemplify or reflect specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of Camp Evers dates to 1921, making the structure at least 69 years old, and exceeding the requirement for the National Register.

This complex represents the earliest known commercial venture in Scotts Valley that provided services to local residents and motorists passing through the area. Although there were camps and resorts in the Scotts Valley area from the nineteenth century, Camp Evers was one of the first resorts catering to the motoring public. Ed Evers built a store, gas station, dance hall, and provided tents for overnighters. In later years a Greyhound Bus depot was added to the complex. During the post-war period, the store also played an important social function in the community, being the meeting place for the residents to informally discuss local issues prior to the formation of a City government. During this period the store also functioned as the headquarters of the volunteer fire department. For many years Scotts Valley was better known as Camp Evers than by its historical name. Therefore, Camp Evers is historically significant according to National Register criterion A and ordinance criteria 1 and 3 because 1) it represents one of the first tourist oriented facilities in the community; and 2) because it provided a focus of social identity for the local area.

Camp Evers is primarily associated with Ed Evers who established the first commercial venture at this location. Little is otherwise known of Evers' activities. Later owners of Camp Evers were Ed Ponza and B. J. Erba who operated the store from 1947 through the early 1970s. Besides being co-owner of the store, B. J. Erba also served as the community's first fire chief heading up the volunteer fire department. Erba's contribution to the community in this regard has been commemorated in the dedication of Erba Lane on which the main firehouse is located.

The original Camp Evers store structure had been remodeled and extended. A new roof and stucco siding have been added, and there is little evidence of any distinctive physical elements of its earlier appearance. Although the complex is in good physical condition and appears to be a thriving commercial center, its historical appearance and architectural integrity have been compromised.

Evaluation Summary and Conclusion

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, it appears that is structure is not eligible for the National Register, primarily due to the lack of historical and architectural integrity. However, the complex has local significance as it relates to broad patterns of community development according to National Register criterion A and ordinance criteria 1 and 3. For this reason it is recommended that efforts be made to preserve community appreciation of the role played by Camp Evers in the development of Scotts Valley's early identity.

THE EVANS HOUSE
27 Mount Hermon Road

Historical Background

Thomas Kilfoyl was one of the early settlers in Scotts Valley owning about 600 acres that include the Manana Woods area today. Although the ranch was large, most of the family's support came from working on the county roads. Although Thomas built a house on the main road through Scotts Valley, the main Kilfoyl ranch house was located in the Mañana Woods area. Upon Thomas's death in 1894, a portion of the estate was sold to Hugh Evans.

Hugh Evans settled in Scotts Valley in 1894, purchasing 162 acres on Mt. Hermon Road from the Estate of Thomas Kilfoyl. Evans was the highest bidder for the property which he obtained for $3616. The sale included unspecified improvements, which probably included the old house, and personal property that included two horses, 4 milch cows, one calf, a set of double harness, and one old spring wagon (Official Record 100:85).

Details on Evans' activities in Scotts Valley were not plentiful. Evans, a native of Ohio, was born in 1847 and came to Santa Cruz County in 1865. He married Matti Lawrence in 1875 (Burnett 1989). He was listed in the 1914 Great Register of Voters as a democrat farming in Scotts Valley and was listed as a resident of Scotts Valley through 1925 in the City Directories. Evans died in 1937 at the age of 90 and was buried at the Santa Cruz Mausoleum.

Description

The construction date of this house was not determined. According to the deed, there were improvements on the property at the time it was purchased by Evans in 1894. Although the house presently has Craftsman architectural details, closer examination reveals that the house was originally a simple Gothic Revival style residence that was enlarged and remodeled during the early decades of the twentieth century. The central one-and-a-half story section of the house has the steeply pitched roof and the central gable typical of the Gothic Revival style popular from the 1840s through the 1880s (McAlester and McAlester 1986). When the house was enlarged additions were added to the front and back of the house extending the roof line at a shallower pitch. Elbow braces were added under the eaves and the house was clad in narrow, horizontal bungalow siding. The fenestration on the upper story may be original one-over-one, double-hung, wood sash windows. The lower story windows are a recent combination of aluminum frame sliding and fixed paned types. The Craftsman addition probably included a full porch that has been enclosed in recent years.

The setting of the house tends to be rather isolated. It is the last house of widely spaced residences and is surrounded by an open field. The property is enclosed by a white board fence and the landscaping is natural and includes several large trees.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old, 2) meet one or more of four criteria, 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history. Criteria for eligibility include: a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history; b) association with significant personalities in our past; c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

The Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria are: 1) Identification or association with person(s), eras or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way. 2) Identification as, or association with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige; a) of an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of construction, or b) of a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked. 3) Exemplification or reflection of specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of the house dates to 1894, however, the architectural style of the central core of the house dates to before 1880. This makes the structure more than 96 years old, exceeding the requirement of the first standard.

The house at 27 Mt. Hermon Road is associated with two well-known individuals in Scotts Valley; Thomas Kilfoyl and Hugh Evans. Both men made contributions to the development of Scotts Valley as local citizens and ranchers; however, neither of these individuals were sufficiently important to merit significance according to National Register criteria; however, they moderate significance on the local level according to Ordinance criterion 1.

The central core of this house was constructed in an early period of Scotts Valley's history. Very few structures now exist that date from this period or reflect the architecture of the nineteenth century. There are no examples of Gothic Revival architecture extant in Scotts Valley, although some fine examples do exist in Santa Cruz. This house has been extensively remodeled during the twentieth century. These changes greatly obscure the Gothic Revival elements of the house. Therefore, the architectural significance of the resource is greatly compromised.

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, it appears that this structure is not eligible for the National Register. The historical association with the Kilfoyl family and Hugh Evans merits moderate significance on the local level. The original architectural style of the house is also locally significance; however, value has been extensively compromised by later remodeling. Because of the compromised integrity of th house its historical and architectural value is minimal.

NATHANIEL HICKS HOUSE
917 Disc Drive

Historical Background


The residence at 917 Disc Drive was constructed by Nathaniel C. Hicks in 1909. Hicks was the son of A. S. Hicks who, in 1874, married Grace Errington, the widow of Joseph Errington. Joseph Errington had purchased 1,115 acres from Hiram Scott in 1865 (Official Record 8:103, 233:167). Upon Errington's death in 1869, his wife, son Landreth, and daughter Mary received one-third shares of the remaining 756 acres. Ellen Dagleas, a niece, received a 1/20 part of Landreth's and Mary's two-thirds (Probate 1911).

Achilles Scipio Hicks, a native of Georgia, came to California in 1853, where he mined and then operated a saw mill in Felton with his brother Napoleon, before settling in Scotts Valley in 1875. He built up the former Errington dairy into a very successful enterprise with the assistance of his nephew, John W. Hicks, and his son, Nathaniel (Surf November 7, 1894). A. S. Hicks died in 1907 and the dairy was operated by N. Hicks (Lease 1909). This dairy was purchased by the Frapwell brothers in 1911.

The subject residence is located on the property originally inherited by Mary Errington who sold the land to her step-brother, Nathaniel Hicks, about 1900. During the early 1890s Nathaniel lived in Tacoma, Washington, where he owned property and was employed in a sash and door factory. He returned to Scotts Valley by 1894 to manage the family dairy until it was sold in 1911. Nathaniel and his wife, Nettie, were married in 1895 and had two children: Arthur B., born in 1896, and Lucy, born in 1905 (Census 1900, 1910).

Nathaniel constructed the residence on a small parcel of land on the east side of Carbonera Creek about 1909. The entrance to Hicks' property from Scotts Valley Drive was known as Hicks Lane. The right-of-way for Hicks Lane was transferred to Victor Buckman in 1921 by Nathaniel and his wife, Nettie (Official Record 310:169). By the 1930s, Hicks' property had been acquired by Bob and Doris Jones who resided in the house; Hicks Lane became known as Bob Jones Lane. The ranch was used as a set for several feature films, including Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm starring Mary Pickford (Peters 1990). The house passed to Ada M. Smith, who sold it to Thomas Bahr, the present owner, in 1977 (Official Record 2713:335; D. Bahr 1989). Bob Jones Lane is now Disc Drive.

Description

The residence at 917 Disc Drive is a wood frame structure that was constructed in 1909 by Nathaniel Hicks. The one-and-a-half story bungalow residence features a front-gabled roof and shingle siding (which may have been a later addition). The roof is covered with tin sheathing and a central chimney. The eaves are boxed and there is an open rake. The entrance is slightly off-center and is flanked by two large windows. Fenestration includes a pair of double-hung sash windows in the gable, and a large fixed sash Chicago-style window next to the entrance. The second front window is a large double-hung sash. There are also pairs of double-hung sash windows on the eastern elevation and single windows of the same type on the western side of the house. Some of the windows on the rear of the structure have been replaced by aluminum frame windows. The house has a raised foundation that is covered with board-and-batten siding. There is a full porch across the front of the house which is supported by six-by-six posts. The porch has a hipped roof covered with wood shingles. It is believed that the porch was rebuilt by the Smiths (Bahr 1989).

The house is presently situated within a recreational vehicle park. The landscaping around the house include the raised lawn with stone retaining walls and a fenced side yard. Large oak trees surround the house.

The house has undergone minimal exterior alteration, retaining much of its original appearance. It also appears to be well-maintained and in good physical condition.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old 2) meet one or more of four criteria 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history Criteria for eligibility include a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history b) association with significant personalities in our past c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

There are three criteria outlined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria. To meet the ordinance criteria, a property must 1) be identified or associated with person(s), eras, or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way 2) be identified as, or associated with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige of a) an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of, or b) a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked; and/or 3) exemplify or reflect specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of the house at 917 Disc Drive dates to 1909, making the structure 81 years old, exceeding the requirement of the first National Register standard.

This house was the home of Nathaniel Hicks who managed the Errington/Hicks dairy until it was sold to the Frapwells in 1911. This dairy was one of the original dairies in the valley started by pioneer Joseph Errington. The dairy industry was one of the major industries in Scotts Valley in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. After the sale of the Hicks dairy, Nathaniel practiced diversified farming besides raising prize hogs (Strong 1990). This house represents the residence of a successful local farmer, few of which remain in the valley. Therefore, this structure merits consideration for significance according to the National Register criterion A and the ordinance criteria 1 and 3. This residence was designed and constructed for Nathaniel Hicks, the son of A. S. Hicks, and a long-time member of the community. There are no remaining resources in Scotts Valley associated with this prominent pioneer family. Based on its association with a prominent local family, this structure is significant according to National Register criterion B and ordinance criterion 1.

The building is a shingled bungalow. Shingle clad houses were popular during this period resulting from the work of architect, Bernard Maybeck, in the San Francisco bay area. This structure is a vernacular, owner designed and constructed, version of this architectural style. It is not an example of a distinctive architectural style; however, it is a representative sample of early twentieth century folk architecture that provides a relatively rare example of the physical surroundings in which past generations lived according to ordinance criterion 2e.

No subsurface historical archaeological deposits are known or suspected on this site; however, the site is a recorded prehistoric site, CA-SCr-33.

The final consideration in the evaluation process is the assessment of the architectural and historical integrity of the structure in terms of alteration and deterioration. The structure has undergone minor remodeling and rehabilitation. The original architectural style is essentially intact. The situation of the structure within the recreation vehicle park currently affects the historical integrity of the building; however, this type of land use is reversible.

Evaluation Summary and Conclusion

The structure's association with a member of the prominent Hicks family and as an uncompromised example of an early twentieth century farmhouse of which few remain in Scotts Valley, it is concluded that the Hicks house has local significance as an historic structure. However, its historical associations and architectural merit, though locally interesting, do not qualify it for inclusion to the National Register.

THE SCOTTS VALLEY MOTOR COURT
4203 Scotts Valley Drive

Historical Background


The history of the Scotts Valley Motor Court is obscure and difficult to trace. This property was originally part of the Locke's Spring Vale Dairy Ranch. In 1887, the Santa Cruz Surf reported that D. M. Locke had cleared "six acres of new land between the schoolhouse and Mr. Larsen's" farm, which would have included the motor court parcel (Surf January 13, 1887). By 1914, the property along the north side of Scotts Valley Drive had been subdivided and the subject parcel was owned by V. H. Snook and used as pasture (State of California Map 1914). Snook's parcel had been further subdivided by the 1930s, and the Standard Map Atlas of 1948 indicates the parcel was owned by F. A. Larscoombe (Standard Map Service 1948). Neither Snook or Larscoombe was listed in the City directories, and no biographical information was recovered.

In contrast, a title search indicates that the motel parcel was owned by Herb and Violet Hoeflinger from 1945 through the early 1960s. It was during the Hoeflinger's ownership that the Scotts Valley Motor Court was constructed. The motel appears in the the Polk City Directory business section for the first time in 1948-49 and is listed in the telephone book yellow pages in 1951. Local residents do not remember the Hoeflingers nor was any archival/biographical information on them discovered. It is surmised that they were absentee landowners who had a local manager operate the motel. This was apparently a common practice in the county (Covello 1990). The Hoeflingers sold the property in the early 1960s to Samuel Brasfield and Virginia Burke.

In 1967 the motel was purchased by Henri Jeanreynaud from Virginia Burke. During this period the motel was being used as residential apartments during the winter and as a motel during the summers, gradually becoming full-time apartment units. The units were refurbished during the 1980s with new aluminum frame windows, doors, and roofs. Jeanreynaud recalled that the motel had a sign with a large clock. The clock was stolen in 1977 shortly before he sold the property to the Hutchins Gate Joint Venture (Jeanreynaud 1990). Hutchins Gate sold the property to Deming Land Company (Deming Stout and Margaret Pound Stout) in 1986 (Official Record 4250:187).

Description

The complex of buildings that compose the Scotts Valley Motor Court are located in the east side of Scotts Valley Drive. The complex consists of seven double detached units. Each unit has gabled roof has asphalt shingles and overhanging eaves. The units are sheathed with clapboard siding and aluminum sliding windows have been added to all the units. There is a small roof over each entrance supported by four-by-four inch posts. The setting includes large oak, pine, and redwood trees on a mixed neighborhood office and retail uses.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old 2) meet one or more of four criteria 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history Criteria for eligibility include a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history b) association with significant personalities in our past c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

There are three criteria outlined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria. To meet the ordinance criteria, a property must 1) be identified or associated with person(s), eras, or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way 2) be identified as, or associated with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige of a) an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of, or b) a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked; and/or 3) exemplify or reflect specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists. The documented history of the Scotts Valley Motor Court dates to 1947 making the structure 43 years old, which is not of sufficient age to qualify the structure for the National Register of Historic Places.

This motel complex represents an commercial venture that provided overnight accommodations to travelers visiting or passing through the area. The motel is representative of many such businesses that were located along Scotts Valley Drive when it was the main highway between the Santa Clara Valley and Santa Cruz. Tourism as an industry was established in Scotts Valley as early as the mid1920s and peaked in importance during the post-war period. This motel was probably constructed as a response to the increasing popularity of the area's tourist attractions. Very few resources are remaining that represent this important period in Scotts Valley history. As the last remaining example of a once common business in Scotts Valley, the motel is significant according to National Register criterion A and ordinance criteria 1 and 3.

The architectural style is a mix of the Minimal Traditional and Ranch styles popular between 1935 and 1950. The first "motel" or motor court in the United States was built in San Luis Obispo in 1925 (Winter 1980). The style of these motel units are very simple and typical of small auto courts during the 1930s and 40s, before the larger more space efficient motels that became popular in the 1950s. This motel does not exhibit any distinctive or unique architecture characteristics.

The final consideration in the evaluation process is the assessment of the architectural and historical integrity of the structure in terms of alteration and deterioration. The motel units have not been significantly altered by rehabilitation efforts. The primary impact has been the installation of aluminum framed windows, which replaced original windows that were probably had double-hung sashes with wood frames.

Evaluation Summary and Conclusion

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, it appears that is structure is not eligible for the National Register at the present time, primarily due to the fact that it is not yet 50 years of age. However, as the last surviving motel dating from the peak of the tourist industry in Scotts Valley the structure has local significance as it relates to broad patterns of community development according to criterion A of the National Register and ordinance criteria 1 and 3. Given time and the lack of further structural alterations, the historical significance of the complex is likely to increase.

THE THIRD SCOTTS VALLEY SCHOOL
108 Bean Creek Road

Historical Background


The Scotts Valley School District was formed in 1865. Frederick Waite and Henry Parsons were appointed trustees (Myzack 1972). Parsons, a well-educated Englishman and father of four children, owned the northern half of the Rancho Carbonera near Scotts Valley. Waite, also a father of four, was the son of former Los Angeles Star newspaper owner (Census 1870).

It was not until February 6, 1872 that land for the school building was obtained. David M. Locke sold to the school district for one silver dollar nearly two acres at the corner of present-day Bean Creek Road and Scotts Valley Drive (Official Record 16:265). Locke evidently donated additional land, for according to the Santa Cruz Sentinel on February 17, 1872, it was reported that Mr. Locke donated four acres for a school and $150 for the building fund (Sentinel 1872).

Locke, a mill and bridge builder, had taught school in Lyman, New Hampshire before leaving for the gold fields of California in 1849. Locke and his wife, Mary, a well-known writer of newspaper and magazine articles, settled in Scotts Valley in 1870 with their two school-aged children (Pokriots 1984). Here, Locke established one of the finest dairy farms in the area.

The one-room school, built in 1872, served the valley as an educational plant, as well as a community center. In 1891, the school became the proud possessor of a large bell weighing 250 pounds. A belfry was added to the schoolhouse. The bell could be heard throughout the valley, and the children were so pleased with it that they took turns ringing it (Surf May 28, 1891). The newspaper reported in 1892 that an ell was added to the central part of the schoolhouse which projected toward the Felton Road (Bean Creek Road). The addition was constructed by O. W. Felker and painted by Tom Kilfoyl. The school needed more room for charts, book cases, and blackboards (Surf February 16, 1892).

The Scotts Valley correspondent to the Santa Cruz Daily Surf often mentioned the comings and goings of the school's teachers. The teachers mentioned were all unmarried women, sometimes only staying in Scotts Valley for a semester, then transferring to schools in other nearby communities. Some of the Scotts Valley teachers were Marian Ashley (1882); Belle Ennor and J. Vestal (1887); Edna Young (1890); Edith Knight (1891); Ella Dakin (1893-94); Eva Knowles (1896); and Edna Scott (1898). During the 1890s, teachers probably made a salary of $55 per month (Scotts Valley Branch Library n.d.). Edna Scott, the neice of Hiram Scott and the daughter of Joseph Scott, was a graduate of San Jose Normal School (now San Jose State University) and taught in Santa Cruz until the 1930s (Koch 1973).

In 1923, the need for a two-room school became mandatory. A $7000 school bond was passed and a craftsman style building was erected in front of the old school building, closer to the Los Gatos Highway (Strong 1984; Scotts Valley School District 1980-81). Both buildings continued to serve the community as all-purpose school, church, dance hall, and theater until 1941. Ruby Owens, the principal, taught grades five through eight, and Eva K. Blair instructed grades one through four. These two teachers were employed by the district for most of the building's tenure. Long-time resident Lola Graham writes that there were usually forty students in attendance; however, when the ADA (average daily attendance) dropped to thirty-five--only enough for one teacher--Mrs. Owen brought her own children to Scotts Valley from Santa Cruz (L. Graham 1988; Laffey and Pokriots 1989).

By 1940, there were enough school-aged children to justify a larger building. John Young, a school trustee, negotiated with the WPA, and construction of the building was begun in 1940 (Young 1978). The new building was built on the same land donated by Locke, but it faced Bean Creek Road instead of Scotts Valley Drive. At this time the old one-room school was torn down, and the two-room building was sold and moved to Glen Canyon Road, where it became a lampshade studio. Unfortunately, the old school bell was sold along with the 1923 building. A highly indignant community was so incensed over the loss of the bell that they failed to properly appreciate their new WPA school building (Strong 1984).

The third Scotts Valley School, which is the central office/classroom/library of the present Scotts Valley Middle School facility, was one of the last WPA projects completed in the United States (Young 1978). Construction of the main school building was begun in 1940 and completed in 1941 (Sentinel 1940; Scotts Valley School 1941). After the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, non-defense projects were terminated. In December 1942, Congress authorized the liquidation of the WPA (American Peoples Encyclopedia 1952).

WPA (the Works Progress Administration) was organized in May 1935, to give employment to millions of people without jobs during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The Works Projects Administration was created on July 1, 1939 to replace the old WPA and the agency was incorporated into the Federal Works Agency. The WPA was instrumental in the building of many roads, bridges, airport facilities, public buildings, water and sewer lines, parks, and recreational facilities. Other programs funded by the WPA were school lunches, historical research, adult education, and public art and theater projects (American Peoples Encyclopedia 1952).

In 1941, the students were moved into the new building, which contained three classrooms and an auditorium. The central hall was flanked on the left by the auditorium, and the kitchen and lavatories were on the right. The hallway leading to the upper field, at right angles to the central hall, had a small office and two classrooms on the right. One classroom was reached by a continuation of this hallway, outside the main building (Jameson 1989). Richard Fickel was hired to replace Ruby Owens as principal of the new school facility and recalled that the school's setting was rather primitive with manzanita, underbrush, and poison oak coming right up to the school building (Koch 1978).

Although there was some local skepticism for the need of a larger school, the school population had risen to 100 by 1946 (Strong 1984). The auditorium was soon sectioned off into three classrooms; and ultimately, one class had to be housed in the old Scotts Valley fire-house (near the Bank of America). Shortly thereafter, it became necessary to rent space from the Free Methodist Conference campgrounds across Bean Creek Road for a primary class. By 1948, the state recognized the school's overcrowded conditions and provided money to build the lower wing of the present middle school (Koch 1978).

Today, the exterior of the WPA section of the middle school looks very much the same as it did in 1941. The interior has been remodeled to meet the needs of the expanding student body and an upper grade curriculum. Two wings, plus a portable building, have been added, and the grounds are landscaped for low maintenance.

Description

The Scotts Valley School is built of reinforced concrete walls and foundation with stucco siding. The shallow gabled roof has asphalt shingles and a combination of close rake and wide overhanging eaves. Fenestration consists of both metal framed casement windows and wood-framed multi-paned windows. The entrance has double doors facing Bean Creek Road. The entrance is covered by a porch recessed under the main roof. The porch is reached by a short flight of concrete steps, and the bannister is cross braced.

The newer wings are detached from the original structure and connected by covered walkways. These buildings are constructed in a compatible architectural style with wide overhanging eaves forming walkways and banks of large windows. The three sections form a quadrangle around the asphalt playground. One wing extends north of the eastern corner of the original building facing Scotts Valley Drive. The second wing (of two detached buildings) extends from the western or uphill end of the WPA building and is reached from the playground by a wide flight of steps.

The school complex sits on a lot that rises gently from Scotts Valley Drive. The school is fronted with an expanse of lawn and large oak trees. A portable building currently sits in front of the WPA building in the lawn area.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old 2) meet one or more of four criteria 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history Criteria for eligibility include a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history b) association with significant personalities in our past c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

There are three criteria outlined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria. To meet the ordinance criteria, a property must 1) be identified or associated with person(s), eras, or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way 2) be identified as, or associated with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige of a) an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of, or b) a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked; and/or 3) exemplify or reflect specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of the third Scotts Valley School dates to 1941 making the structure 49 years old, which is one year short of the 50 years necessary to qualify the structure for the National Register of Historic Places.

The history of education in Scotts Valley is an important element in the historical development of the community. Three school buildings have served Scotts Valley. The first one room school functioned for 52 years, before being joined by a new two room structure about 1923. The older school building continued to serve community functions until both buildings were replaced by the new WPA built school building in 1940. This third building has served the community for almost fifty years. However, schools are ubiquitous in any community; and to have historical significance, it should represent some major attribute that is associated with educational development in the community. Since this is the third building on the site, its significance as an example of Scotts Valley educational development is minimal.

Although many prominent Scotts Valley citizens have been educated in this building, there are no outstanding individuals whose association with this specific building would merit consideration for significance according to this criterion.

This building is an example of WPA architecture and construction, perhaps one of the last projects to be approved before the WPA was dissolved prior to World War II. This study did not determine how many other WPA projects were constructed in Scotts Valley; however, it is likely that this may be the only example of this type of project in the area. As such, it may have a minimal level of significance according to National Register criterion C and ordinance criterion 3.

Architecturally, the style of the school appears to be a combination of the Minimal Traditional style that grew out of the Depression and the California inspired Ranch style; styles adapted here for a school building. The Minimal Traditional, seen in structures built between 1935 and 1950, lacked decorative detailing and had low pitched roofs with a close rake. The contemporaneous, more rambling Ranch style was characterized by moderate to wide over-hanging eaves, low pitched roofs, and covered walkways or patios. The later wing additions are compatible in architectural style. Schools dating to this period and in this architectural style are common throughout California. Architecturally, the building is not distinctive.

The final consideration in the evaluation process is the assessment of the architectural and historical integrity of the structure in terms of alteration and deterioration. The original WPA section of the school complex has not been altered to any significant degree. The wing additions are sensitive in architectural style and do not significantly impact the historical character of the WPA structure. The presence of the portable building does impact the historical setting of the complex; however, this building appears to be temporary and any impacts are reversible.

Evaluation Summary and Conclusion

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, it appears that this structure is not eligible for the National Register at the present time, primarily due to the fact that it is not yet 50 years of age. However, within one year it will have reached the minimum age requirement. Arguments can be made for minimal significance according to National Register criteria A and C. A case can also be made for its significance as a WPA project; and as such, it may have local interest to the community according to ordinance criterion 3.

THE RAYMOND STEWART HOUSE
552 Bean Creek Road

Historical Background

The Raymond Steward house is currently located within the Montevalle Mobile Home development. The property was originally part of the large D. M. Locke Springvale Dairy that was purchased by Locke in 1869 from Samuel Dickens. The land passed to Locke's daughter, Finette Locke Shafter, who sold 40 acres in the late 1920s to Joseph Portlock. The land changed hands several times in the early 1930s until finally acquired by George F. and Mollie Nelson (Official Record 250:391).

The Nelsons resided in Scotts Valley from 1935 through the 1940s and were living out of the area by 1950 (City Directories). The couple had three daughters: Ann, Georgia, and Margaret.

In April 1958 the Nelsons sold the property to Raymond and Frances Stewart, residents of Scotts Valley on Bean Creek Road (Official Record 1182:293). It is possible the Stewart's had rented the property for some period prior to the official sale of the land. A 1954 newspaper article reported that Steward brought his firm and family to Scotts Valley "because it reminded him of the lake country in his native Michigan and because he wanted his delicate work performed 'in a natural atmosphere of unhurried, accommodating serenity' " (Jones c1954).

Raymond Stewart was the president of the Stewart Engineering Company, the first electronics industry to be established in Scotts Valley. The electronics plant was devoted to the manufacture of specialty vacuum tubes and was the largest supplier of Backward Wave Oscillators (BWOs) to the test instrument industry. In 1963 the company had twenty employees (Silicon Valley Information Center 1990). The Stewart Engineering Company acquired several adjacent parcels of land in Scotts Valley. The manufacturing company was sold to Watkins-Johnson in June 1963 and their facilities currently occupy former Stewart property.

The 40 acres that included Stewart's residence was acquired in 1968 by Montevalle, a limited partnership that consisted of Howard Rick, Reynold Retzlaff, and E. Van Whitman, which was based in Benford, North Dakota, who developed a large mobile home park on the property (Official Record 1918:349). The first mobile home park in Scotts Valley was established in 1966 by Bill Graham at Spring Lakes on Mt. Hermon Road. Montevalle was followed in 1969 by Vista del Lago. Montevalle was built in three phases and by 1974 consisted of 220 units (Scotts Valley Banner 1974). Montevalle was noted in a guide to local architecture to be "one of the most sumptuous and well placed in the landscape" of the Scotts Valley Mobile Home Parks (Gebhard, Sandweiss, and Winter 1985). The mobile home parks in Scotts Valley became especially popular with retirees, housing a significant portion of Scotts Valley's population.

Description

The Montevalle clubhouse, formerly the Raymond Steward residence, is an excellent example of the simple ranchhouse, often called the Bay Region Style, made popular by architect William Wurster. Although, the architect for this house could not be determined, it is certain that, if it was not Wurster himself, it was an architect greatly influenced by Wurster's "philosophy of simplicity, directness, and honesty of expression" (Peters 1980). Like Wurster-designed houses at Pasatiempo, this simple house, with a Monterey Revival ingredient, blends into the serene setting of the wooded landscape.

The one-story home has a low-pitched roof with wood shingles and a large centrally located chimney. The roof has a wide overhand that forms covered porches supported by eight-by-eight inch posts on both the front and back of the house. The siding is a rough, uneven stucco that simulates the adobe used in early California structures. The fenestration includes large six-over-six double-hung sash windows and large picture window flanking the front entrance. The picture windows and the double Spanish style front doors may later alterations. The rear patio entrance is by two sets of french doors. Decorative elements include ceramic tile on the entry porch and turned wooden bars over the windows.

Landscape consists of well cared for lawn with concrete paths, shrubs, and mature trees. The home presently is located within a large mobile home park. The style and scale of the mobile homes are compatible with the house and are located well away from the house, maintaining the impression of rural isolation.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old, 2) meet one or more of four criteria, 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history. Criteria for eligibility include: a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history; b) association with significant personalities in our past; c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

The Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria are: 1) Identification or association with person(s), eras or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way. 2) Identification as, or association with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige; a) of an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of construction, or b) of a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked. 3) Exemplification or reflection of specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of the Steward residence dates to 1958; however, it is possible that the house was constructed for the George Nelson family as early as 1935. This style of was popular from the late 1920s through the 1960s. However, the documented age is 32 years, which is not sufficient to qualify the structure for the National Register of Historic Places.

This residence was the home of the Raymond Stewart family. Raymond Stewart was the owner of the Stewart Engineering Company, the first electronics industry to be located in Scotts Valley. This individual is important for being the first to recognize the potential for basing electronic industries in Scotts Valley, thus forming the foundation of the primary economic activity for the City today.

The architectural style is an excellent example of the Bay Region style popularized by William Wurster in the mid-1930s and from which the Ranch style developed, peaking in popularity during the 1950s. This house characterizes those elements most appreciated by students of the simple and functional style of residential architecture. The structure is presently used as the clubhouse for the residents of Montevalle Mobile Home Park. The area around the house is suitably landscaped and the surrounding development is compatible in size and scale to the residence.

The final consideration in the evaluation process is the assessment of the architectural and historical integrity of the structure in terms of alteration and deterioration. Very little alteration is evident on the exterior of the residence. It is possible that the front entrance and windows have been modified. These changes do not detract from the basic character of the house.

Evaluation Summary and Conclusion

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, this structure is not eligible for the National Register at the present time, primary due to the fact that it is not yet 50 years of age. The structure has local historical merit due to its association with Raymond Steward the first electronics executive to base his firm in Scotts Valley, forming the basis for a major economic industry. The architectural style and environmental setting of the house also contribute to the local significance of the structure. This house is one of the more important historical structures in Scotts Valley, and in time, barring physical alteration or deterioration, will be eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.

THE BEVERLY GARDENS
4548-4550 Scotts Valley Drive


Historical Background The Beverly Gardens were a public attraction developed by Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Archibald in the early 1930s. The Archibalds were residents of San Francisco and the peninsula during the 1920s. Mr. Archibald was involved in the movie and theater industry in northern California. Records indicated that Agnes Archibald purchased the Scotts Valley Drive property from Victor and Daisy Buckner in April 1929 (Official Record 147:478). The parcel was described as eight acres bounded by Scotts Valley Road, Carbonera Creek, and parcels to the north and south owned by Smith and Thompson.

Mrs. Ruby Strong recalls that her nephew was Mrs. Archibald's chauffeur during the late 1920s, driving her back and forth between properties in Santa Cruz County and San Francisco. Mrs. Strong's parents, the Sam Smiths, were neighbors of the Archibalds (Strong 1988).

Prior to the Buckners, the property was owned by Samuel Smith, who, in 1914, had the parcel cultivated as an orchard (State of California 1914). At the time the Archibalds purchased the Scotts Valley property the parcel was undeveloped. The Archibalds planted formal gardens, had an aviary stocked with exotic birds, as well as spider and rhesus monkeys. The Archibalds developed the parcel expecting to open it as a public attraction upon Mr. Archibald's retirement (Klang 1988). City directories list the Archibalds as living in Scotts Valley from 1930 through 1935 and the Beverly Gardens are listed from 1933-1935. The Gardens were named as a memorial for the Archibald's son who was killed during World War I (Bartlett 1988). By 1935 the Beverly Gardens were a resort that included a restaurant (the Beverly Lodge) and small cabins (Taylor 1988). Mr. David Bartlett remembers visiting the aviaries and having tea at the Beverly Lodge in the early 1930s. A 1936 map indicates that the entrance to the property was a driveway off of Bob Jones Drive (Disc Drive); the driveway was spanned by an arch. The octagonal aviary was located at the end of the drive. A vineyard and uncultivated pasture were located adjacent to Scotts Valley Drive.

During this period Scotts Valley Drive was the state highway and Scotts Valley was a small community centered at the intersection of Mt. Hermon Road and the state highway. The village consisted of a small resort, store, and bus station at Camp Evers with nearby gas stations, auto camps, restaurants, and a school. Besides the Beverly Gardens, Erlandson's Tree Circus was established on Scotts Valley Drive during this period.

In 1938 the Archibalds defaulted on their loan payments, and the Anglo California National Bank of San Francisco sold the property to John and Dora Sinnhuber (Official Records 341:442, 344:456). John Sinnhuber, an Austrian, continued to operate the Beverly Lodge as a summer resort during the World War II. The Beverly Lodge was a popular restaurant with people coming out from Santa Cruz to eat.

About 1947 Sinnhuber split the parcel and the Beverly Lodge restaurant was sold. At this time the octagonal aviary building was purchased by Helen Nanna and moved to 5032 Scotts Valley Drive. This remodeled structure became Hanna's hardware store and rural post office until 1976 and is presently continuing to serve a commercial function (Laffey 1988b).

In the early 1950s the Beverly Lodge became a wax museum operated by Brad McDonald (Taylor 1988). The museum included figures of Clark Gable, Rudolph Valentino, and Lillian Russell (Jones 1954). The Sinnhubers transferred the northern portion of the property to Carl and Dorothy Sinnhuber Taylor in 1955 who are the current residents (Official Record 1009:550).

Description

The complex of buildings at 4548 and 4550 Scotts Valley Drive are the remnants of the Beverly Gardens restaurant and resort complex.

4548 Scotts Valley Drive is a wood frame residence in a rustic, vernacular style. The house has several sections over a raised basement. The cross-gable roof is covered with shakes and has a central chimney. The house is sheathed with board and batten siding. The fenestration includes multi-paned windows. The entrance is on the upper story with a flight of stairs to a balustraded wrap-around deck. Remodeling of the house has included the enlargement of the basement and the addition of the full deck over the basement.

The setting of the house as observed from the street includes large, mature trees including palms and oaks. The gardens are raised terraces with rock retaining walls. The grounds to the rear of the house were not examined. A small building with a gabled roof and board-and-batten siding is associated with the 4548 Scotts Dive. This structure appears to be a rental unit.

4550 Scotts Valley Drive is a one-and-a-half story wood frame residence in a rustic vernacular style. The end-gabled roof with a shed dormer extends to cover a full porch. The overhanging eaves have a narrow decorative bargeboard. The house is sheathed with board-and-batten siding and has double hung sash windows. The rear addition has horizontal siding with large aluminum picture window. The porch is supported by square posts had as a flat cut-out balustrade. An associated two-car garage also has board-and-batten siding. The setting of the house is among a wood lot with large, mature trees and other natural vegetation. The grounds to the rear of the house were not examined.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old, 2) meet one or more of four criteria, 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history. Criteria for eligibility include: a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history; b) association with significant personalities in our past; c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

The Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria are: 1) Identification or association with person(s), eras or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way. 2) Identification as, or association with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige; a) of an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of construction, or b) of a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked. 3. Exemplification or reflection of specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of the Beverly Gardens dates to 1930 making the structure at least 60 years old, exceeding the requirement for the National Register.

This complex represents the earliest known tourist attractions in Scotts Valley established by W. and Agnes Archibald in the early 1930s. Therefore, the Beverly Gardens are historically significant according to National Register criterion A and ordinance criteria 1 and 3 because it represents one of the first tourist attractions in the community.

The Beverly Gardens was primarily associated with the W. P. and Agnes Archibald who established the first tourist attraction at this location. The Archibalds only lived in Scotts Valley for a period of five years before losing the property through default. From 1938 through 1947 the Beverly Lodge was operated by John Sinnhuber as a restaurant and resort. The Sinnhubers were long-time residents of Scotts Valley; however, other than the operation of the restaurant, no activities of significance were discovered.

Those structures visible from the street appear to be in good structural condition and are well-maintained. Both structures have natural landscaping and are sensitive to the forested environment that has been maintained in this location.

Evaluation Summary and Conclusion

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, it appears that the Beverly Garden structures may be eligible for the National Register due to their early association to the tourist industry in Scotts Valley. The complex has local significance as it relates to broad patterns of community development according to National Register criterion A and ordinance criteria 1 and 3.

THE RYDER HOUSES
2 and 6 Bean Creek Road


Historical Background

The parcel at the southwest corner of the intersection of Bean Creek Road and Scotts Valley Drive was property originally purchased by David M. Locke from Samuel Dickens in 1869. Locke donated the parcel on the northwest corner to the Scotts Valley School District in 1872. The schoolhouse was located in 1887 at the intersection of three roads, one of which led to Summer Home Farm, another through a gate to Locke's dairy, and a new road to Felton (Surf April 24, 1887). This road to Felton followed what is now Bean Creek Road. In 1887 the newspaper announced that a long-awaited road between the two communities would be constructed (Surf January 6, 1887). According to the article it passed "the ruins," near what is now Nelson Road, and also passed D. M. Locke's house on Mt. Hermon Road near the intersection of Lockewood Lane (Surf January 6, 1887, April 24, 1887). Mt. Hermon Road did not intersect Scotts Valley Drive until the 1920s. Bean Creek Road was known as the Old Felton Road until after 1939 (State of California 1939).

The 1.991 acres at the corner of Scotts Valley Road and the Old Felton Road was sold to Horace E. Ryder in 1921 by Finette Locke Armstrong (Official Record 305:204). The land passed to Amy Ryder, who in turn deeded the lot to her husband, David K. Ryder, in 1923 (Official Record 200:449). Prior to Horace Ryder's purchase, this corner was undeveloped, providing pasture for Locke's dairy (State of California 1914). Horace Ryder was a resident of Santa Cruz, employed as chauffeur with the Santa Cruz Stage Company in 1922 (City Directory).

Amy Ryder was the granddaughter of Samuel Dickens, a pioneer in Scotts Valley (Surf February 16, 1892). In 1869, Samuel Dickens, a North Carolina lumberman, held a total of 1131 acres in the northwestern section of Scotts Valley which became David Morrill Locke's Spring Vale Dairy (Official Record 12:602). Dickens daughter, Matilda, married Samuel Lockhart in 1867 for whom Lockhart Gulch was named (Bunnett 1989). Lockhart settled in the gulch in 1865 (Koch 1973). The Lockharts had two daughters, Amy and Clara, before Samuel's untimely death in 1873 (Census 1870; Index to Cemetery Records). Matilda remarried John Eaton. The Lockhart sisters married the Ryder brothers. Amy married David K. Ryder in 1887 and Clara married William Henry Ryder in 1890 (Bunnett 1989). David and Amy had three children: Ernest, Clare, and Elva (Census 1910).

The David Ryders were residents of Santa Cruz during the 1890s, but were ranching in Scotts Valley by 1910 (Census 1910; Great Register 1914). They constructed the house on Bean Creek Road during the early 1920s, after their former residence was burned. David served as the Roadmaster for Scotts Valley. The couple had five children. The Ryders resided in Scotts Valley until David Ryder's death in 1936 (City Directories; Index to Cemetery Records).

The house at 6 Bean Creek Road was constructed by the Ryders for their daughter Elva, whose husband was transferred to San Jose before it was finished. This structure has been occupied by Carl Flach for many years. Carl, born in 1897, was the son of German-born Conrad Flach, who had a from on Glen Canyon Road (Census 1900; City Directories).

The next known residents of the Ryder house were the Johansens. Janus S. Johansen, a Danish house painter, and his wife Olga settled in Scotts Valley during the 1920s. Janus was hired by the Frapwells to paint the interior of their new house in 1923. The Johansens acquired 10 acres on the east side of Scotts Valley Drive south of the Beverly Gardens which was lost during the Depression. Olga Johansen was a cook at the Scotts Valley School and is known for starting the student hot lunch program at the school in the 1940s. This property remained in Johansen ownership until 1983 when it was sold to the current owners, Norman and Diane Bei.

Description

2 Bean Creek Road. This wood frame house was constructed in the early 1920s in a style incorporated some elements of the currently popular Craftsman bungalow. The one-story house had a steeply pitched gable on hip roof covered with asphalt shingles. The rafter ends are exposed and elbow eave braces are present on the rear elevation of the house. The siding consists of board-and-batten on the rear elevation with bungalow tri-lap siding on the front and eastern elevation. There is a full porch extending across the front of the house that has been enclosed. A small porch is located at the eastern entrance that features a hipped roof. Fenestration consists of pairs of double-hung sash windows. There is a small two-car garage association with the house.

6 Bean Creek Road. This residence is a small rectangular building with rustic unpainted board-and-batten siding. The front gabled roof has a shallow pitch and is covered with wood shingles. There are exposed rafter ends and a centrally located chimney. The original windows are double-hung sash with two large multi-paned picture windows added to the eastern elevation. The entrance is asymmetrically placed in the gable end and is flanked by a set of windows. The front door features glass panes. The full porch with hipped roof that covers the front entrance is supported by 4-by-4 inch posts. There is also a small gabled garage associated with the structure.

The lot is covered with natural vegetation that consists of mature oaks and pine trees. The two historic structures face the 1941 Scotts Valley School. The rest of the block is taken up in modern residential structures.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old 2) meet one or more of four criteria 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history Criteria for eligibility include a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history b) association with significant personalities in our past c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

There are three criteria outlined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria. To meet the ordinance criteria, a property must 1) be identified or associated with person(s), eras, or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way 2) be identified as, or associated with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige of a) an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of, or b) a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked; and/or 3) exemplify or reflect specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of the house at 2 and 6 Bean Creek Road date to approximately 1923, making the structures at least 67 years old, and exceeding the requirement of the first National Register standard.

The house at 2 Bean Creek Road is associated with two Scotts Valley families: the David Ryders and the Janus Johansens. Both families made minor contributions to the development of Scotts Valley.

Summary and Conclusion

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, it is concluded that these structures are not eligible for the National Register and have minimal significance according to the ordinance criteria because of their association with local families.

THE TANNERY BUILDING AT PINNACLE PASS
75 Mount Hermon Road

Historical Background


The history of leather tanning in Santa Cruz County dates to 1843 when a tannery was established by Paul Sweet near Joseph Major's flour mill (believed to be located between the present-day Lockewood Lane and Lockhart Gulch) on the San Agustin Rancho. The prevalence of tanbark oaks in the Santa Cruz Mountains played an important part in the emergence of the tanning industry in the County.

Sweet, a twenty-eight year old Rhode Island sailor, arrived in Monterey in 1840. He operated the tannery on Major's land until he joined John Fremont's California Battalion in July 1846. He returned to the county in 1849, but not to Rancho San Agustin, remaining in Santa Cruz until his death in January 1890 (Bancroft 1886; Sentinel January 21, 1890).

After Sweet left in 1846, the tannery was operated for short periods of time by Pruitt St. Clair (aka Prewitt Sinclair) and then William Blackburn. Blackburn was a Virginia cabinet-maker before coming overland to California in 1845. He gave his attention to lumbering and tanning before opening a store in Santa Cruz where he continued to reside. He later successfully took up agriculture in the county. Blackburn hired Richard Kirby, an English tanner, to dress out the hides in 1847 and 1848. Kirby left for the gold mines during the Gold Rush, later returning to the Santa Cruz area in 1850 where he engaged in the manufacture of leather goods (Bancroft 1886; Detlefs 1976).

There are no known records of tanning activity on the San Agustin Rancho between 1848 and 1863. In 1863, John Wagner established a tannery on what became the Locke ranch on Mt. Hermon Road. It is possible that he reestablished the former Sweet Tannery; however, the exact location of either of the 1843 and 1863 tanneries is obscure (Detlefs 1976; Koch 1981). The twelve acres leased by Wagner and his partners, Robert Anderson and Gottlieb Ziegler, for their tannery operation could have been on property originally owned by either Joseph or John Scott. Joseph Scott sold parcels in the Lockhart Gulch area to Samuel Dickens in 1860 and 1863 (Official Record 5:161; 6:9). John Scott sold Dickens property in 1866 (Official Record 8:285). It is difficult from the deed descriptions to tell the exact locations and boundaries of these parcels. In 1869, Samuel Dickens, a North Carolina lumberman, held a total of 1131 acres in the northwestern section of Scotts Valley which he in turn sold to David Morrill Locke on September 7, 1869 (Official Record 12:602). The Lockes were residents of Scotts Valley in 1870 with property valued at $16,000 with improvements valuing $3300 (Census 1870).

Robert Anderson and John Wagner operated the tannery on the Locke Ranch from 1863 to 1873 (Rowland n.d.). John Wagner married Mary Anderson on July 23, 1865, at the home of Gottlieb Ziegler in Scotts Valley (Sentinel July 29, 1865). The 1870 census of Santa Cruz County lists the following households in the Lockewood Lane/Lockhart Gulch area: David Locke, farmer, with his wife, Mary, and two children, Finette (10) and Alexander (9); John Wagner, leather manufacturer, with his wife Mary and two children; and Gottlieb Zeigler, leather manufacturer, with his wife, and three boarders--Robert Anderson (leather manufacturer), Charles Watson (tanner), and John Erringer (tanner). Alexander Locke, at the time he sold property to the Grahams in 1928, said the house was the former tannery bunkhouse. It is likely that this structure was formerly the 1865 Zeigler residence which housed tannery workers listed in the 1870 census.

The Lockes evidently occupied Dickens' house on another part of the ranch until 1874, at which time they moved to the abandoned tannery buildings. Mary Jameson Locke, wife of D. M. Locke, wrote to her brother on November 1, 1874, that they had "moved on August 8...We live now where the tannery was - (they are all moved away) and we are a mile near-er school - so the children have only 1/2 mile across a big field" (Locke 1874). (The school was then located at the same site as the present Scotts Valley School.)

Mary Jameson Locke, a newspaper correspondent for many years, wrote articles for the Pacific Rural Press under the sobriquet "Mary Mountain" (Locke c1916). A photograph of the home of "Mary Mountain," taken between 1874 and 1880, shows a house in the Lockewood Lane area that resembles later pictures of the "tannery bunkhouse." A 1908 photograph of Locke's Spring Vale Dairy shows a building which Mrs. Graham claims is the house they purchased in 1928 that was identified by Alexander Locke as the tannery bunkhouse (UCSC ).

While the Lockes occupied the tannery building, their white turreted Victorian house was built. By 1880, the Locke's Spring Vale Dairy was considered a place of interest in Santa Cruz County (Meyrick 1880). The Santa Cruz Surf included this description in 1887:

. . .a gate [in front of the school house] leads to Mr. Locke's fine large dairy and stock ranch of thirteen hundred acres. This place is principally given up to stock raising, Jerseys, Holsteins, and the pretty deer-like Alderneys roam all over its hills and valleys. Butter is the staple, and a visit to the large,well kept dairy is to be enjoyed and remembered. The new road which is being built to Felton passes by Mr. Locke's house (Surf April 24, 1887).

The Lockes moved the tannery building from the Lockewood Lane area to the present vicinity of K-Mart where it was used as a residence for their dairy managers (Graham 1989). The move of the structure may have taken place in 1896 when the old dairy buildings were remodeled to make room for improved machinery which consisted of Sharples separator with a capacity of 1250 pounds of milk per hour (Surf August 8, 1896).

The "bunkhouse" was probably occupied by George Shippy in 1887, when he rented the dairy from D. M. Locke. George's brother, Minot Shippy and his family resided at Spring Vale in 1890 (Surf December 5, 1890). George returned in 1892, with Minot returning in 1900 (Surf October 5, 1892; U. S. Census 1900). In 1898, the Shippys also operated their own dairy, sending their milk to Locke for separation (Surf April 2, 1898). By 1910, the George Belcher family and three boarders were living next to the Lockes and working as laborers at the Spring Vale Dairy (U.S. Census 1910).

Occupants of the structure between 1910 and 1928 have not been identified. Alexander Locke leased the dairy portion of the ranch out to various people before he sold the "bunkhouse," a large two-story barn, and 90 acres to the Grahams in 1928 (Graham 1989; Official Records 142:101).

The Grahams first tried raising hogs, cattle, and then corn. "We put the corn along Mount Hermon road," Mrs. Graham recalls. "It looked just gorgeous, but a killing frost came on the third of June one year, wiping out the corn" The Grahams then started selling peat from their bog, which had a good nitrogen level of two percent (Scotts Valley Branch Library, clipping file).

When J. Jackson and Lola Graham moved into the "bunkhouse" in June 1928, the house consisted of a kitchen/dining room, a living room, and three bedrooms. The entire house was built of heart redwood and was very plain. There was one fireplace to heat the house which Mr. Graham sealed off and replaced with a wood-burning stove. The Grahams dug a cesspool and converted one bedroom into a bathroom. Mr. Graham removed the high boardwalk attached to the end of the back porch which led to the outside privy. A porch was made into a bedroom and storage area (Graham 1989).

On July 3, 1929, a raging forest fire swept through the area between the Mount Hermon and Mission Springs conference grounds, taking many buildings in its wake, including the last of the Wagner tannery buildings. The sheriff and his crew could not save the Locke mansion, so they rushed to the Graham house. While Mrs. Graham prayed for the fire fighters, the wind suddenly shifted and blew south towards Mount Baldy carrying the fire across Pasatiempo Pines and on to Graham Hill Road where it was contained. A few sparks had ignited the dry, moss covered, redwood shakes of both the Graham residence and the barn, but the men had them quickly doused (Graham 1988).

The Graham family continued to occupy the structure until 1947. At that time, the elder Graham's moved to a new home near the present-day Valley Gardens Golf Course and rented the "bunkhouse." In 1969 the Grahams donated the old tannery building to an Australian couple, who moved it to Pinnacle Pass/Fort Scott. The new owners gutted the building and opened it as a pizza parlor (Graham 1989). It has been used for various business operations since the restaurant was closed, and is presently owned by Ron McNeil, who leases the building to Images Fashion Outlet.

Residents of the Tannery Bunkhouse

Gottlieb Ziegler. Zeigler a native of Wurttemburg, Germany, arrived in California on December 31, 1849. Laticia Anderson, his first wife, was the sister of tannery partner, Robert Anderson. After retiring from leather manufacturing in 1873, he bought property in east Santa Cruz and took up farming. He joined the Santa Cruz County Society of Pioneers and died in Stockton in 1897 (Surf November 23,1897; Rowland n.d.).

Robert Anderson. A native a Ireland, Anderson came to California during the Gold Rush. He served in the California Militia during the Civil War. When the Scotts Valley tannery lease expired, he returned to New York where he had previously lived, and married Isabella Chambers. Anderson bought property on Bay Street in Santa Cruz and later owned a vineyard at Vine Hill. He was injured and died in a wagon accident while delivering his last shipment of wine to the station at Glenwood on June 30, 1888. He was with his son-in-law, James Jarvis, whose family had planted the first vineyards at Vine Hill in the 1860 (Rowland n.d.; Surf July 2 1888; Sentinel July 1, 1888; Cartier et al. 1984).

John Wagner. Wagner was also a native of Wurttemburg, Germany, and may have lived with the Zieglers before and/or after his marriage to Mary Anderson in 1865 (Sentinel July 29 1865). After leaving the tannery business, he bought property on Highland Avenue in Santa Cruz and became a prominent farmer. He held the office of Santa Cruz City councilman and was very active in the Santa Cruz Odd Fellows and Rebekah groups. In a section of Harvey West Park, land formerly owned by Wagner, are a group of redwood trees named Wagner Grove (Surf December 22, 1914).

David Morrill Locke. A native of New Hampshire, Locke came to California on July 23, 1849, to make his fortune in the gold fields. Disillusioned with mining, he and his brother, Silas, saw opportunities in the City of San Francisco. They bored artesian wells and sold water to the thousands of ships and newcomers to San Francisco. In 1853, David became involved in a flour mill and sawmill in Knight's Ferry, the half way point between Stockton and the southern mines. He became the driving force behind the bridge that was built over the Stanislaus River. After Locke's bridge was swept away in the flood of 1861-62, he immediately organized a company to build the covered bridge that still spans the river at Knights Ferry. He was hailed as the "Father of Knight's Ferry" when he left that area, and his work is commemorated at the historical park in Knight's Ferry.

After settling in Scotts Valley in 1870, David continued to rebuild mills, but later retired to the life of a gentleman farmer. The tannery building became the home of his dairy managers, after he and his family moved into the three-story turreted Victorian nearby. A waterwheel, two ponds and formal gardens made Springvale a county landmark and his dairy was noted for its prize-winning butter and cheese.

In 1872, the Lockes donated about four acres and monies for the building of a schoolhouse on Scotts Valley Road and he served as a school trustee for many years. He also served as a Santa Cruz County horticultural commissioner, and was the U. S. agent for Santa Cruz County exhibits entered in the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1892 (Surf October 15, 1891, February 16, 1892). He advised county supervisors to cover the Felton bridge, which they did. Since it was covered after the bridge was completed, it became the tallest covered bridge in the United States. After residing in Scotts Valley for thirty-six years, David moved to Berkeley where he died in 1908 (Pokriots 1984).

Mary Jameson Locke. Born in 1831 in Vermont, Mary Jameson moved to California in 1853. She married David Locke in San Francisco. They moved to Knight's Ferry where she was a leading spirit and a newspaper correspondent. While living in Scotts Valley, she wrote for the Pacific Rural Press under the sobriquet of "Mary Mountain." In 1881, Mary died in Berkeley at the age of fifty, while visiting her children, who were attending the University of California (Pokriots 1984; Sentinel April 10, 1881, January 11 1938).

Finette Locke Armstrong Shafter. Born in Knight's Ferry in 1860, Finette came to Scotts Valley with her parents in 1870. She attended the Scotts Valley School, Santa Cruz High School and spent a year and a half at the University of California at Berkeley. Upon her mother's death, she returned to Spring Vale and became the Scotts Valley correspondent for the Santa Cruz Surf. Through her many articles circa 1880 to 1900, the early history of Scotts Valley has been preserved (Surf October 5, 1889).

Lockewood Lane was named in commemoration of the Locke family. Other names no longer in use are Alexander Peak (Mt. Baldy) for Alexander Locke, Locke Spring in Spring Lakes Mobile Home Park, and Locke Grove (behind Camp Evers).

J. Jackson Graham moved his family to Scotts Valley from Idaho in 1928. Mr. Graham's attempts to raise hogs and cattle on his new ranch were unsuccessful, so he began digging the peat on his property and transporting it to gardenia growers in San Francisco. Later he and his son, Bill, started a successful sand and gravel business on Mt. Hermon Road. Graham Plaza shopping center was named for the Graham family (Graham 1988).

Lola Graham. Mrs. Graham is a native of Georgia who taught school in Alabama before moving with her parents to Idaho. While raising her five children, she often wrote poetry in her spare moments. Her poetry won many prizes over the years and she has recently been featured in Contemporary Biography - Women (1983). After taking a class in photography, she developed her own techniques and has traveled to Antarctica to photograph wildlife. Her interest in horticulture has won her prizes at the Santa Cruz County Fair for the largest apples (American Biography Service 1983; Nelson 1989).

Bill Graham. Arriving with his parents in 1928, Bill attended Scotts Valley School and Santa Cruz High School. He joined the Merchant Marines during the Second World War. After the war, he set up a sand and gravel business with his father. He served as a Scotts Valley School trustee and was named the first mayor of the City of Scotts Valley. He designed and built the Spring Lakes Mobile Home Park on his parent's property (Graham 1989).

Helen Graham, the daughter of J. J. and Lola Graham, began her swimming career at the Santa Cruz Boardwalk when she was fourteen years old. She was coached by Skip Littlefield for the Pacific Athletic Association meet and won the 50-yard dash for those under fifteen, setting a new record. In 1945 she made the All-American swim team and, in the same year, her relay swim team of the Far West broke the 400-meter American record. In 1987 Helen became the first woman to be inducted into the Hall of Fame at the University of the Pacific, her alma mater. Helen's sister Shirley, also a swimmer, performed in the Water Carnival at the Santa Cruz Plunge when she was six years old (Graham 1988).

Tom Graham, born in Palo Alto, came to Scotts Valley with his parents when he was five. He served in the Coast Guard during World War II and afterwards joined the Santa Cruz police force. He won the American Legion award as the outstanding police officer of Santa Cruz in 1948 for his blazing duel with a drug-crazed addict in the streets of the city. Tom died in December of 1948 from poliomyelitis, leaving a wife and two small children (Riptide December 9, 1948).

Description

The tannery bunkhouse is a wood frame structure that archival evidence indicates may have been constructed in the 1860s. The side-gabled structure has a rectangular floor plan with a shed roofed extension at the rear. The building presently has asphalt shingles on the roof and non-original board-and-batten siding. A full porch is attached to the front of the building that has a flat roof, a decorative railing, and decorative roof braces. Fenestration includes wood frame windows with fixed sashes. The structure is presently part of a "frontier" commercial complex known as Fort Scott or Pinnacle Pass. Historical photographs indicate the bunkhouse originally had horizontal siding and six-over-six double-hung sash windows.

Evaluation for Significance

This property was evaluated according to the criteria defined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance and the standards and criteria for eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet National Register standards, a property must 1) be at least fifty years old 2) meet one or more of four criteria 3) possess architectural integrity, and 4) be evaluated within the context of the area's local history Criteria for eligibility include a) association with events significant to broad patterns of history b) association with significant personalities in our past c) have distinctive architectural characteristics of type, period, or method of construction; or d) have yielded or are likely to yield important archaeological information on the history of the area.

There are three criteria outlined in the Historic Landmark Preservation Ordinance criteria. To meet the ordinance criteria, a property must 1) be identified or associated with person(s), eras, or events that have contributed to local, regional, state, or national history in a distinctive or important way 2) be identified as, or associated with, a distinctive work or important work or vestige of a) an architectural style with historic value, design, or method of, or b) a notable architect, engineer, builder, artist, or craftsman, or c) the totality of which comprises a distinctive or important work or vestige whose component parts may lack the same attributes, or d) that has yielded or is substantially likely to yield information of value about history or culture, or e) that provides for existing and future generations an example of physical surroundings in which past generation worked; and/or 3) exemplify or reflect specific elements or characteristics of local, regional, state, or national cultural, social, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history. The factor of age alone does not necessarily confer a special historical, cultural, architectural, or aesthetic value or interest upon a resource, but it may have such effect if a more distinctive or important example no longer exists.

The documented history of the tannery bunkhouse dates to approximately 1865-1870 making the structure at least 120 years old, and exceeding the requirement of the National Register standards.

This structure was originally associated with the Wagner, Anderson, and Zeigler tannery established in Scotts Valley in 1863. The first tannery in Santa Cruz County was established in Scotts Valley in 1843, and it is possible that the Wagner tannery was located near the location of this earlier tannery. The tanning industry was one of the earliest important industries in the county. As important as the industry was, it was in a decline by the 1880s. The industry depended on the tan oak bark, one of the county's natural resources, which became scarce, since stripping the bark killed the trees. Without an abundant, cheap source of tan oak bark, many of the tanneries could not afford to stay in operation (Verado and Verado 1987). As the only existing building in Scotts Valley that was associated with this early important industry, this resource has historical significance according to this criterion.

Archival research revealed that this structure was associated with several prominent and significant personalities in Scotts Valley's past. The bunkhouse provided the home for the Locke family for several years before the construction a large farmhouse in 1880. Unfortunately this farmhouse was destroyed in the fire of 1929, and no other resources in Scotts Valley represent this family who made significant contributions to the community's development. The bunkhouse was also the home of the Grahams, a significant family in the twentieth century development of the city. Therefore, the bunkhouse building has significance because of its association with persons important in Scotts Valley's history.

The structure is typical rural vernacular residential building that was commonly built by pioneers in California. However, because of their small size and rustic construction, very few examples of this type of building are in existence today. Typically, this structure has also been remodeled and enlarged over the years so that very little of its original fabric remains. The final consideration in the evaluation process is the assessment of the architectural and historical integrity of the structure and its setting. The structure has been maintained as a residence over the years; however, it has undergone several remodeling phases which have compromised the original structure. The building has been twice relocated from its original site. These factors greatly compromise the significance the building has because its association with the tanning industry and with significant personalities in Scotts Valley's history.

Evaluation Summary and Conclusion

Based on the research and architectural evaluation, it appears that this structure is not eligible for the National Register due to its compromised architectural and historical integrity. However, because of its long eventful history, it does retain local significance as its link with the historic tanning industry in Scotts Valley and for its association with the Locke and Graham families.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Twelve potentially significant historical resources were evaluated for historical and/or architectural value in this study. The results of the research and evaluation on each resource have been presented. To gain a perspective on the relative merit of each resource, the Historic Evaluation Criteria developed by the San Jose Historic Landmarks Commission were applied not only to the resources evaluated in this study, but to other historic resources in Scotts Valley that have been previously evaluated. It should be emphasized that the Historic Evaluation Criteria employed have only been used as an tool in order to gain an objective means to compare dissimilar resources with a wide range of attributes and characteristics, and various levels of alteration and physical conditions.

The evaluation sheets for each resource are presented in the Appendix with a description of the various criteria used. The greatest numerical value was 111 points scored by the Hiram Scott House. Based on this number, a hierarchy of significance was defined which included three categories:

1. Significant Cultural Resources (111-74) are historic resources for which pro tection and preservation should be a priority.

111 H. Scott House, Civic Center Drive 88.3 Hollins Polo Barns, Santa's Village Road 84.3 Raymond Stewart House, 552 Bean Creek Road

2. Resources of Merit (73-37) are historic resources for which preservation and protection should be encouraged.

68.1 Nathaniel Hicks House, 917 Disc Drive 68 Holiday Barn, Santa's Village Road 65.5 Octagon Building, Scotts Valley Drive 65.3 The Beverly Gardens Area, 4548-4550 Scotts Valley Dive 58 Third School Building, 108 Bean Creek Drive 56.5 Second Frapwell House, 5010 Scotts Valley Drive 43.2 Silva House, 4990 Scotts Valley Drive 41.1 Tannery Bunkhouse, 75 Mt. Hermon Road 39.9 Camp Evers, 3109 Scotts Valley Drive 3. Non-Significant Resources (36-0) are resources that a) have had their historic/ architectural value compromised by extensive alteration or deterioration; or b) have limited historical/architectural value.

33.2 Hugh Evans House, 27 Mt. Hermon Road 27 Scotts Valley Motor Court, 4203 Scotts Valley Drive 25.2 First Fire Station, 4425 Scotts Valley Drive 19 Ryder Houses, 2 and 6 Bean Creek Road

The following discussion of possible mitigation recommendations of historical resources is general in nature because specific projects have not been proposed for these resources. It would be important to re-evaluate each resource at the time development is proposed to ascertain that its relative merit has not changed due to the loss of other similar resources, alteration or deterioration, etc. Generally, there are four types of recommendations, any one or combination of which may be appropriate based on the value of the resource and the specific development proposal. Preservation of an historical resource would involve a project design that would incorporate the resource into the development plan. This plan could include the restoration or rehabilitation of the resource for adaptive reuse without compromising its architectural integrity. This recommendation would be most appropriate for Significant resources and should be encouraged for Resources of Merit.

Relocation is often appropriate when impacts to a historic property cannot be avoided. Although this solution would preserve the resource, moving a structure from its original setting would compromise its historical integrity. Properties dis-associated from their outbuildings, gardens, etc., loose significant historical value. Implicit in this alternative is the commitment to restore or rehabilitate the relocated structure for continued use.

Salvage and Documentation are considered "last resort" mitigation alternatives when other options have been explored and eliminated. Salvage involves the removal and preservation of architectural features or historical elements for possible reuse in restoration of similar historic structures. There may be elements associated with the historical function of a resource that could be made part of an interpretive museum display. If salvage is undertaken, the elements must be placed in an appropriate repository that will guarantee their preservation and/or eventual reuse. The location of salvaged features within the resource should be photographically documented prior to their removal. The structure should be completely documented, both archivally and photographically, prior to demolition.

The archival documentation of the resources has been generally satisfied as a result of this study. Depending on the relative merit of the resource, further documentation requirements could include the tracing of family members to obtain historical photographs or oral histories, examination and evaluation building interiors, testing or monitoring for associated archaeological features, and/or additional photographic documentation of the resource prior to demolition. All documentation should be archived at an appropriate research repository for use by future researchers. Such repositories may include the Scotts Valley Branch Library, the Scotts Valley Historical Society archives, Special Collections at UCSC, or the Santa Cruz County Historical Trust.

LITERATURE CITED AND CONSULTED

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n.d. The Frapwell Family. Unpublished ms.

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1866 Deed 8:285. John Scott to Samuel Dickens, May 7, 1863.

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1990 Personal communication with G. A. Laffey regarding architect William W. Wurster.

Pokriots, M. D. 1984 The Life and Times of David Morrill Locke and some of his associates. Unpublished ms.

1988 Rural rancho now high-tec haven. Scotts Valley Banner. February 24, 8:1. 1989a Early Days on the San Agustin. Scotts Valley 1989 Directory and Annual Review. Scotts Valley: Scotts Valley Chamber of Commerce.

1989b Remembering Scotts Valley - The Recollections of Ruby Strong Smith. Unpublished ms.

1990 Historical Background of the Tannery Building at Pinnacle Pass. Report prepared for Archaeological Resource Management.

Primack, M. 1980 Axel Erlandson's World Famous Tree Circus, parts 1-3. Clipping file, Scotts Valley Branch Library.

Probate Records 1911 Joseph Errington Estate. Decree of Final Distribution. July 11, 1911.

Punnet Brothers 1906 Official Map of the County of Santa Cruz. Compiled and drawn from official data and other reliable sources by Punnett Brothers. San Francisco.

Raymond, I. H. 1887 Santa Cruz County. Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz Development Association.
Roop, William and Leo Barker, with Charlene Detlefs 1977 Cultural Resource Invetory of the Scotts Valey Wastewater Project Service Area. Report prepared for Harris & Associates and the City of Scotts Valley by Archaeological Resource Service, Novato.

Rexroad, M. 1975 Mt. Charlie descendant seeks Scotts Valley water. Clipping file, Scotts Valley Branch Library.

Riptide 1948 Hero Dies. December 9, 1:4.

Rowland, Leon n.d. Santa Cruzans. UCSC Special Collections, McHenry Library.

Santa Cruz Central Library 1989 Personal communication with reference desk regarding condition of earthquake damaged Van Cleeck buildings. November 28.

Santa Cruz Sentinel 1865 Marriages: Wagner/Anderson. July 29, 2:5.

1872 New School House. February 17, 2:3.

1879 January 25.

1881 September 10.

1888 A Frightful Accident. July 1, 3:2.

1907 The obituary of William J. Thomson. December 4, 1:3.

1924 The obituary of Ellen Thomson. April 11, 2:6.

1938 Mrs. F. Shafter, Long Resident of Santa Cruz County, Dies. January 11.

1940 Historic Scotts Valley School to Make Way for New Structure. December 20, 1:1.

1949 The obituary of Thomas W. Thomson. May 22, 4:6.

Santa Cruz Surf 1887 Scott's Valley Notes. January 13.

1887 Scott's Valley - A Region of Fine Dairy Farms and Charming Scenery. April 24.

1887 Scott's Valley Items. September 1, 5:3.

1887 Scott's Valley Items. October 6, 3:3.

1888 A Roll to Death. July 2, 5:4.

1889 Our Boys and Girls - Santa Cruzans who have ascended the Ladder of Fame - Our Country's Brightest Jewels. October 5.

1890 Scott's Valley. April 10, 3:3,4.

1890 Scott's Valley. December 5.

1891 Scotts' Valley. May 28, 3:5.

1891 Scott's Valley Items. October 15, 3:2.

1892 Scott's Valley: Wake Robin's Newsy Notes from that Neighborhood. October 5, 2:1.

1896 Scott's Valley and Hepsidam Items. August 5, 4:4.

1897 Death of Old Resident. November 23, 4:2.

1898 From Scotts Valley. April 2, 3:2.

1901 Dagleas obituary. August 27, 4:3.

1905 Dearth of Mrs. Ellen Dagleas. April 4, 8:4.

1914 Highly Esteemed Resident Dies. December 22, 4:2. Scotts Valley Banner 1974 Hardware, grocery comprised retail area. Scotts Valley Days issue.

1979 Camp Evers market to stay with Ponzas. June 20, 4:1.

1979 Scotts Valley fireman: Twenty Years for Sparky. June 20.

1983 Sky Park started as a private strip in 1947. January 5.

n.d. Camp Evers--it was one meeting place were problems were solved.

Scotts Valley Branch Library n.d. Clipping files. Scotts Valley History and Scotts Valley General files.

Scotts Valley Middle School 1941 Inscription in the walkway beside the WPA building (extant).

Scotts Valley School District 1980- SVUSD History and Statistical Data. School District files. 1981

Scotts Valley Yearbooks 1956 Hand drawn map of the school and district boundaries.

1958 Aerial view of the Scotts Valley plant, with WPA building in center forground.

Siebenthal, D. 1977 Axel Elandson's Trees; a Fascinating Sight in Scotts Valley. Santa Cruz Sentinel, August 21.

Silicon Valley Information Center 1990 Personal communication with G. A. Laffey regarding the development of the Stewart Engineering Company. San Jose Public Library.

Standard Map Service 1948 Standard Atlas of Santa Cruz County. Santa Cruz.

Stocking, Elda Frapwell 1989 Personal communication with Marion Pokriots. Daughter of Edward Frapwell and longtime Scotts Valley resident.

Stout, Demming 1990 Personal communication with Edith Smith. Current owner of Scotts Valley Motor Court.

Strong, Ruby Smith 1978 Personal communication with Marion Pokriots. Scotts Valley school trustee, 1940.

1984 Personal communication with Marion Pokriots. Long time resident of Scotts Valley.

1988 Personal communication with G.A. Laffey regarding history of Beverly Gardens.

Taylor, Dorothy 1988 Personal communication with G. A. Laffey regarding history of Beverly Gardens.

1990 Personal communication with G. A. Laffey regarding Scotts Valley volunteer fire department.

University of Santa Cruz (UCSC) n.d. Photograph, Home of Mary Mountain. Special Collections, McHenry Library. 1908 Photograph, Locke Ranch. Special Collections, McHenry Library.

U. S. Census Bureau 1870 Santa Cruz County, Branciforte District. 1900 Santa Cruz County, Branciforte District.

1910 Santa Cruz County, Branciforte District.

Verado, J. and D. Verado 1987 Restless Paradise: Santa Cruz County. Northridge, CA: Windsor Publications.

Winter, R. 1980 The California Bungalow. Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, Inc.

Wulf, W. n.d. A History of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Unpublished typescript.

n.d. A History of the Stagecoaches over the Santa Cruz Mountains. Unpublished typescript.

MAPS

California Division of Highways 1936 Plan and profile of State Highway in Santa Cruz County, between Scotts Valley and 1 mile north of Santa Cruz.

Diseño, San Agustín Rancho 1851 Map of the land of J. L. Majors accompanying original papers; copied from the orignal which formed a part of the papers filed for Record October 21st, 1851. From the files of Marion Pokriots.

State of California 1914 Map of State Highway Route 5. Sheets #12 and #13, June 8, 1914.

1939 Map of State Highway. Highway Map Book 1, Map 1:5.

Standard Map Service 1948 Atlas maps of Santa Cruz County.