March 28, 1990


This report presents the results of the archival research on the history of the Glenwood Estates project area on Glenwood Highway in the City of Scotts Valley. The focus of the research was to discover maps and documents that would locate and describe potential historical resources within the project area. Toward this end the map collections at the Recorder's and Surveyor's offices of Santa Cruz County, and at the University of Santa Cruz McHenry Library were studied. Research was conducted into the archival collections located at the Branciforte Library, the Scotts Valley Branch Library, and UCSC as well as public records located at the Recorder's and Clerk's offices. This report will present a narrative of the general historical development of Scotts Valley and the specific history of the Glenwood Estates project area.


The City of Scotts Valley was originally part of the 4400+ acre Rancho San Augustin. The first white man to reside in the Scotts Valley area was a Russian sailor Jose Antonio Bolcoff who left his ship in Monterey in 1815. In 1822 Bolcoff married Candida Castro, the daughter of Joaquin Castro of Branciforte and became a Mexican citizen in 1833. In the early 1830s Bolcoff was granted the Rancho San Augustin, building a house on the grant in order to meet the requirements of the government (Bancroft 1886; Pokriots 1989).

In 1834 a group of American mountain men, led by Isaac Graham, arrived in California, many of them settling in the Santa Cruz mountains. Among this group was Joseph Ladd Majors, a young trapper from Tennessee, who joined Graham in the redwoods in the Zayante area where he became a partner in a distillery. Majors married Bolcoff's sister-in-law in 1839 and they made their first home at the San Augustin rancho (Bancroft 1886; Pokriots 1989).

After Bolcoff was granted the Rufugio rancho, he apparently abandoned the San Augustin Rancho which was granted in 1841 to Joseph Majors along with the Zayante Rancho. An American visitor to the "American colony" that was established at Graham's and Major's ranches in 1841 reported that he was treated to "good beef, plenty of beans and red pepper, good coffee and nice milk" (Pokriots 1989:17). Majors was engaged in stock raising, operating a distillery, and growing wheat. He also built several gristmills in the area (Verado and Verado 1987).

In 1850 Hiram Daniel Scott offered to buy Major's Rancho San Augustin for $20,000, making his first payments in 1852. The son of a sea captain, Scott was a native of Maine who had jumped ship at Monterey in 1846. About 1853, Hiram constructed the small frame house presently located near the City Hall. Between 1853 and 1856, Hiram brought his large family, consisting of his father, step mother, and nine brothers and sisters, from Maine to the San Augustin rancho. Hiram's brother, Joseph, in 1905 described Scotts Valley in 1853 as a place where horses and cattle roamed wild and "wild clover grew tall enough to tie over the back of a horse" (Surf December 6, 1905). The Scotts has 250 horses and cultivated the virgin soil for grain. The first year they produced 10,000 bushels of barley and wheat which was hauled by ox teams to Santa Cruz and shipped by schooner to San Francisco (Ibid.). In 1856 Hiram again decided to visit the gold fields, and quit-claimed the ranch to his father, Daniel, and most of the ranch was divided up between Hiram's father and brothers. Daniel Scott occupied Hiram's house until his death in 1867 and the subject area was acquired by George Edwin Scott. Hiram returned to the area in 1858 and married in 1861. From 1869 to 1874 he was operating livery stables in Santa Cruz. In 1874 Hiram was lured by mining opportunities to Arizona where he prospected and farmed until his death in 1886 (Santa Cruz Surf April 5, 1886; Detlefs and Bowman 1976).

Prior to 1858, travel between Santa Cruz and the Santa Clara Valley was the Spanish trail established by the Mission fathers probably following an old Indian trail across the mountains; or after 1854 by stagecoach via San Juan Bautista and Watsonville. During the early American period commerce had been dependent on shipping with a few trails connecting sawmills, tanneries, gristmills, and scattered ranches with Santa Cruz's shipping point. Intensification of agriculture and lumbering resulted in pressure to surmount the physical barrier of the mountains between Santa Cruz and the Santa Clara Valley. Three turnpike companies completed roads in 1858. The Santa Cruz Gap Turnpike Joint Stock Company built a road from Los Gatos to the summit where it was joined by roads built by the Santa Clara Turnpike Company and the Santa Cruz Turnpike Company. The Santa Clara Turnpike Company's route followed the Old San Jose Road to Soquel. The Santa Cruz Turnpike Company was organized by Charles McKiernan (Mountain Charley), Hiram D. Scott, and F. A. Hihn. McKiernan and Scott took the construction contract of $6,000, completing the road from Santa Cruz via Graham Hill Road and through Scotts Valley to the summit in eight months. It was announced in 1858 that stages would run tri-weekly, later increasing to twice daily through Scott's Valley, stopping to change horses at Scott's house (on Scotts Valley Drive). From this point , the four horses team was changed to a six horse team for the long pull up the grade up the toll road to Mountain Charley's cabin (Farley 1975; Wulf n.d.).

The pattern of constant land subdivision and increasingly intensified use occurring in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay areas was typical of Scotts Valley. By the late 1860s dairy farms appeared in the valley, becoming one of the major industries in the area. The largest dairy in the valley was established in 1869 by David M. Locke on 1131 acres on both sides of Mt. Hermon Road. Known for its production of fine butter, the dairy was also a tourist attraction by 1896 (Francis 1896:121). Other dairies were established by the Erringtons, Hicks, Thomsons, and Frapwells, to name of few. By 1887 the valley was mostly devoted to dairy products, cheese and butter being the staples. However, ranchers in Scotts Valley believed in agricultural diversification, raising vegetables, fruit, forage crops, poultry and eggs, animals for slaughter, and cutting lumber for shingles and firewood. A small vineyard was attached to most of the farms, producing grapes and wine (Raymond 1887).

By 1872 the only Scotts remaining in the valley were George Edwin and his wife Anna, whose house and dairy were located on Glenwood Drive, later known as the Harington Ranch and then the Santos ranch (Cartier and Detlefs 1981). Throughout the nineteenth century and early twentieth century Scotts Valley participated in the steady agricultural development of the county, remaining predominant-y a farming and dairy region until the 1930s. During the 1930s and 1940s, the large dairy ranches of the Lockes and Frapwells were subdivided into smaller parcels leading to more intense commercial and residential development. George Scott's ranch has remained essentially intact until the present.

From its early years as a stop on the stage route across the mountains, the community of Scotts Valley provided services to travelers. The State Highway was built in the 1920s following the route of the old stage road through Scotts Valley. Scotts Valley's location on the State Highway and the increased automobile traffic led to local commercial development and the establishment of tourism as a local industry. In the 1920s, Edward N. Evers established Camp Evers at the junction of the State Highway and Mt. Hermon Road which consisted of a small store, gas pumps, dance hall, and tents. Other tourist attractions were established during the 1930s and 40s included the Beverly Gardens and the Tree Circus. The brightly painted dinosaurs of Lost World were added to the Tree Circus in 1964. The wax museum and Santa's Village were also added as popular tourist attractions during the 1950s. In 1954 when the the new freeway by-passed the five-mile stretch of the old highway through Scotts Valley, the town included Santa's Village, the wax museum, the Tree Circus, innumerable curio shops flanked by fruit juice stands and motels (Jones 1954; Corr 1975).

Early industrial development was centered around the area's natural resources, namely sand and gravel quarries, sawmills and lumberyards, and peat. A large portion of Locke's dairy was developed into a private airport after World War II becoming, in 1962, the municipal airport for the City of Santa Cruz until its closure in 1983. The first electronic company in Scotts Valley was the Stewart Engineering Company established by Raymond Stewart in the 1950s. This company was taken over by Watkins-Johnson in 1963. The expanding electronics industry is now one of the City's major employers.

In the early 1960s it appeared that the City of Santa Cruz was going to annex Scotts Valley piecemeal. After a long battle with the County of Santa Cruz over the location of a cemetery in the middle of town, the residents of Scotts Valley incorporated into a city in 1966. Real estate was a thriving industry as early as the mid-1950s. Scotts Valley was even then becoming a bedroom community with people commuting to Lockheed in Sunnyvale and IBM in south San Jose (Jones 1954). The city has continued to grow, and now has a population of over 8,000 residents (Chamber of Com-merce 1989).

Development within the Project Area

The Glenwood Estates project area was originally part of 450 acres in the northwest portion of the San Augustin Rancho that was acquired by George Edwin Scott from his brother Hiram Scott about 1856. George Edwin and his wife Anna built a house on the east side of Glenwood Drive and established one of the first dairies in the Scotts Valley area. A photograph was obtained of this house from the Scotts Valley Historical Society. It was a simple Gothic Revival structure, a style popular in the 1850s and 60s (Roop 1977).

The Plat of Rancho San Augustin, surveyed in 1859, does not include structures; however, it does indicate the "new road" crossing the northern boundary of the rancho. This new road was what is now Glenwood Road, then the new stage road built by Hiram Scott in 1858.

The Scotts had no children of their own; however, they adopted Ella (formerly Carolyn Bennet, survivor of the Bennet-Manley party that crossed Death Valley) who married Mr. Gushee, a prominent Santa Cruz dairyman. The Gushee's had three children: Edith, Ethel, and Edwin H. Twenty-six year old Ella Gushee and her three young children were living with the Scotts in 1880 when the Federal census was taken. A map of the County of Santa Cruz (1880-1881) indicates three structures on the Scott's Glenwood ranch. Although unlabeled, the location and orientation of the mapped structures correspond to the old George Scott residence, the large barn that was located immediately north of the extant barn, and the creamery building.

George Scott died on September 3, 1881 at the age of 53. His wife, Anna E. Scott, continued to operate the ranch with the assistance of hired help. By 1900 Mrs. Scott was being assisted by her step-granddaughter Edith and her husband, Arthur Harington (Santa Cruz County Census 1900). In 1901 Anna Scott asked the Haringtons to take over the management of the ranch. In exchange for supporting Mrs. Scott for the balance of her life, she promised to will the property upon her death to Edith Harington. As per their agreement, the Haringtons operated the farm and dairy, investing $6000 of their own money in livestock and farm and dairy equipment (Probate 6100). A residence directly across Glenwood Road from the old Scott house may have been constructed for the Haringtons or as a residence for Scott/Harington employees. It is indicated on the 1902 (updated to 1909) USGS map of the area. It was directly south of the southernmost structure presently on the property.

Mrs. Scott died in 1903 leaving Mrs. Harington the 390 acre Glenwood ranch and Ethel Gushee a $1000 legacy. Mrs. Scott's probate record includes a detailed list of her possessions which includes livestock, household items, and dairy equipment. This list may be helpful if early twentieth century refuse deposits are located during archaeological testing (Deed 253:20-24, see Appendix).

Glenwood Road was the original stage coach route between Santa Cruz and Los Gatos that became the state highway in the 1920s. The highway route was surveyed in 1914 by the State of California (see map 2). The survey maps show structures adjacent to the highway which included six structures in the Glenwood Estates project area. These included two barns, two houses, a shed, and a creamery, as well as the dairy yard on the property then owned by Edith Alma Harington and her husband Arthur H. Harington (State of California 1914).

The Harington's operated the dairy ranch through the late 1930s. There were four Harington children born between 1897 and 1905: two girls, Mary Adele and Dorothy; and two boys, Douglas and Vernon. In 1910, one employee was listed with the Harington family group in the federal census. He was Louis Smith, a 28-year old bachelor who had been born in Iowa.

Douglas, the oldest child, was the administrator of Edith's estate upon her death in 1931. The estate included a 1929 Nash Coupe, the 390 acre Glenwood Ranch, and "old household furniture and effects" valued at $75. Records indicate that the house was shingled in 1932. After the property was distributed in 1934 among the five heirs, the four children quit claimed their portions of the ranch back to their father (Probate 6100). Arthur Harington died in 1939 at the age of 64. Both of the Haringtons were interred at Oakwood Cemetery.

During the 1930s the ranch was acquired by Mr. Don Santos. The 1943 USGS map indicates the presence of six structures on the ranch, corresponding to those on the 1914 map. The southern structure on the property does not appear on any of the historic maps of the subject area. The 1955 USGS map updated to 1966 shows the addition of a long building at the end of a road above the residential/barn complex and of the barn currently on the property next to Glenwood Road. The building on the hillside had been removed by the 1978 update of the USGS map.

The Creamery or Cheese House (701 Glenwood Road)
(Burned in the early 1990s)

The creamery building, probably remodeled several times, was most recently rehabilitated by Mr. Pope in the 1970s. Oral history regarding this structure indicates that it was one of the very early buildings associated with the dairy operations of George Scott. The historical maps verify that a structure in this location was in place by 1880. The small gabled roofed structure was originally sheathed with redwood board-and-batten siding attached with square nails. The old siding is covered with green asphalt shingles that may have been added when the main house was shingled according to in the 1932 probate records. The roof has an open rake and enclosed over-hanging eaves with a fascia board. The 2-over-2 sash windows have molded crowns that were typical of houses built in the 1870s and 80s. Previous examinations of the structure indicated that this structure was a simple medium gabled house with green asbestos shingles on the exterior. Below this exterior is a board and batten construction...The house is a one- floor rectangular building set on a timber pier foundation which seems to have had numerous modifications and renovations. Occasionally poured concrete piers are in evidence, as well as hand trimmed cross beams held in place with bar cut spikes. Numerous modifications have been performed on the interior and windows and a closed-in porch have been added to the exterior (Roop 1977).

It is understood that there is also a stone lined basement (Clark 1990); however, this was not located or examined. The interior of the structure shows indications of frequent and recent remodeling; some of the doors and their hardware may date to c1900 or earlier. There is no evidence noted of the building's former use as the creamery or cheese house.

Other than one or two barns, there are no other buildings in Scotts Valley that were associated with the important dairying industry. If this structure is indeed the early building labeled as the "creamery" on the 1914 map, as is suspected, then it was part of the first dairies established in the Valley and is potentially a very significant historical resource. Although the structure is in poor physical condition and has been heavily impacted by remodeling, it may be possible to determine if any elements of its former function are existing in, on, around, or under this building. The physical requirements of a pre-1900 dairy buildings were obtained from the description of rural milk rooms and cheese houses from Halstead (1881), Sammis (1900), and Van Slyke and Pablow (1909).

A milk room was described as being built of brick or stone, especially in the lower story. Ventilation and circulation through an upper story or attic provided for the removal of warm air and the lower story could be partly below ground level or built into the side of a hill. The floor was a hard, smooth surface such as concrete or plaster and laid on a slope to drain water. Location of the dairy buildings was near a cool spring or well and away from other buildings and contaminating influences.

In a dairy associated spring house, the spring water was conducted into the spring house by an underground pipe. The ground around the house was often paved roughly with stone to minimize mud and contamination. Plaster and lime whitewash were recommended for the walls as well as an ample slope for the drainage of waste water.

In the description of a rural cheese house it was preferable to locate the building on a hillside for water drainage (Van Slyke 1909). The waste water and excess whey could other-wise contaminate the house site. A constant source of cold, pure water was mandatory. The cheese house was usually constructed of brick or stone with opposing windows or doors for ventilation. Curing of the cheese could be done in a loft or upper room. Floors were of brick or stone with a smooth surface. There was need of a boiler, fireplace, or stove for heating the milk during the cheese making process. The structure was located a distance from the residence and other farm buildings to promote hygiene.


There have been at least four, barns associated with the Glenwood dairy. The earliest was the large barn located immediately to the north of the barn presently located on Glenwood Road. This barn has been documented to 1880 and was probably built during the late 1850s or 1860s. This "old dairy barn," located north of the present barn, collapsed in heavy storm during the 1970s (Detlefs 1990).

A second barn was constructed between 1880 and 1914. This barn was located on the west side of Glenwood Road across from the existing barn and is indicated on USGS maps through 1978.

Between 1955 and 1968 two new barns were built on the property. One of these is the barn presently located on east side of Glenwood Road and the second was on the west side of Glenwood Drive at the end of the drive that goes up the hill. The hillside structure was gone by the 1978 version of the USGS map.

The present barn has concrete foundations, floors, and half-walls topped with wood frame construction. The concrete half-walls have buttresses and were poured in forms. This milking barn has mangers down each side and a large door from the cement paved yard for the cows to enter. A passage as the south end of the barn separates the milking portion of the barn from the stucco covered creamery and refrigeration room.

George Scott Residence

As previously mentioned, the Scotts constructed a two-story Gothic Revival residence on the east side of Glenwood Road during the early years of their occupation of the ranch, circa 1856-1880. This structure is indicated on the 1880 map as being L-shaped. The house was occupied by George and Anna, their adopted daughter Ella, and in 1880, by Ella's three small children. After George's death in 1881, Anna continued to reside at this location until her death in 1903. The 1900 census indicates that the Harington's occupied a separate residence on the ranch, very likely a residence on the west side of Glenwood Drive. After Anna's death, it is likely that the Harington's moved to the old Scott house as in later years this structure was known by locals as the Harington house (Detlefs 1990). The Scott/Harington house was burned by the City of Scotts Valley fire department in 1967 as a practice exercise.

Other Structures

A structure on the east side of Glenwood Drive in the project area was indicated on the 1909 USGS map (Map 3, #8). The 1909 U.S.G.S. map was based on surveys dating from 1895 and 1899, and the structure may have dated to the late 1890s. It is very likely this residential structure was occupied by the Harington family at the time the 1900 census was taken. This structure was probably built by or for the Haringtons or possibly Anna Scott between 1899 and 1909. Oral history indicates that this structure was occupied by a school teacher during the Harington tenure on the property (Pokriots 1990). A photograph in Margaret Koch's history of Santa Cruz County (1973) shows a one-story front-gable-and-wing house with a bay window on the gabled end facing Glenwood Road. Ms. Koch misidentified this structure as the [George] "Ed" Scott house, describing it as "a dilapidated little old house crouching on the roadbank, in the northern end of the Valley on Glenwood Road" (Koch 1973:126). In an interview with Douglas Harington, Charlene Detlefs verified that the Koch photograph was not the original Scott residence that was occupied by the Harington family for many years (Detlefs 1990). This structure burned during the mid-1970s.

The building that is currently on the east side of Glenwood Drive does not appear on any of the historic maps. Architecturally the structure is simple and unadorned, offering few clues to its age. The front gabled structure has exposed rafter ends that were typical of the Craftsman style that became popular during the early 20th century. The building is sheathed with horizontal channel rustic siding and has a mud sill foundation. There is evidence of the use of square nails in the siding. Vertical siding in the gable is presently covered with asphalt shingles. All the windows have been removed and the structure is in very poor physical condition. Oral history collected by Marion Pokriots suggests that this building may have been a private school for the four Harington children (Pokriots 1990). The span of years that the children would have been of school age ranges from about 1902 through 1923. (Note: This building burned down in 1997)

Other Resources

Two other historic resources were identified by Holman & Associates (1988) during the Phase I reconnaissance. These are ARS H-1, a possible stagecoach stop, and a deposit of historic artifacts on the bank of the Glenwood fork of Carbonera Creek. No archival data was obtained that might lead to an understanding of the historic artifact deposit on creek bank.

Archival research on the history of the stagecoach route through Scotts Valley indicates that there were stage stops originally at Hiram Scott's house on Scotts Valley Drive and later at the Hendrick's place near the intersection of Scotts Valley Drive and Mt. Hermon Road. Other stops were further up Glenwood Canyon on Bean Creek and at Charles McKiernan's house near the Summit. While the stage route undoubtedly closely followed Glenwood Road through the project area, the only source of information regarding the possible stage stop at Canham Road comes from Mr. Fitchley, the 1977 owner/resident of the ARS H-1 property (Wulf n.d.; Detlefs 1990).


The archival research on the history of the Glenwood Estates project area revealed that this property was one of the first, if not the first, dairies in the Scotts Valley area. This dairy was established by George Edwin Scott, brother of Hiram Scott, the namesake of Scotts Valley. George established the dairy on Glenwood Road in the late 1850s or early 1860s. After the death of Mrs. Scott, the dairy was taken over by Edith and Arthur Harington through the 1930s. Don Santos took over the dairy in the late 1930s, operating it until the 1970s. This dairy was not only one of the first dairies established in a region noted for its fine dairies, it was also the longest surviving dairy in Scotts Valley.


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